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The windchill and waterchill effects

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The temperatures perceived by the human body do not always coincide with those recorded by environmental or meteorological thermometers. Factors such as air humidity, wind, the presence of water or sweat on the skin have the effect of altering our thermal perception, sending to the brain the so-called “perceived temperature” from the body, generally different from the absolute recorded temperature from thermometers.

Generally, humans have the ability to maintain a constant body temperature (around 36.5 degrees centigrade) producing sweat when the external environment becomes warmer and burning more calories when the air becomes colder. But what happens when the body heat is subtracted from the skin by the wind? In these cases we speak of windchill effect, which is a phenomenon that occurs when our body is subjected to a constant flow of air. In these conditions the temperature perceived by the body drops directly proportional to the wind speed and to the surface of the body in contact with the air.

More precisely, the windchill effect consists in the rate of heat loss by the body, and is dependent on the velocity of the air current that invests it. Try to blow on your hands: the skin, until then in a state of quiet, is suddenly hit by the jet of air which cools the skin by subtracting heat and producing that typical feeling of cool (or real cold) that we find in these cases. The windchill effect should not be underestimated if there is no suitable shelter or clothing available because, in extreme situations, prolonged exposure to air flow can lower the body temperature to such an extent that hypothermia, even when temperatures are not too low. The following table shows the effects of the windichill effect on the “perceived temperature” through the relationship between the air temperature and the wind speed. Choosing a temperature on the upper part of the table and choosing the wind speed on the left side, it is possible to cross the row and the chosen column to see the temperature perceived by the body:

As you can see from the table, if the air temperature was 0 ° and we were in the middle of an air flow of 20 km / h our body would perceive a temperature of -5 degrees. There are several tables that measure the windchill effect, each based on different considerations and values, but the true purpose of these measurements is not to accurately indicate the centigrade degrees perceived by the skin but to illustrate the incisive wind effect on the resistance of the body in nature.

The windchill effect should not be underestimated at all: a well-made and well-sheltered shelter is of no use if the opening were to be hit by a draft of air during the night! When looking for a good place for your camp, try to keep in mind the windchill effect by orientating its entry point towards a rock wall or some other natural barrier. In these cases it may be useful to keep one thing in mind: at night the air tends to cool, causing the warm air to rise upwards and the cold one to go downhill, thus causing a possible breeze coming from the mountain. and go down to the valley. To avoid being in the middle of a sudden nighttime air flow, try, as far as possible, to direct the entrance of your shelter towards the valley or at least to build an effective “entrance door” able to shelter you!

The windchill effect must also be kept in mind when choosing hiking gear. Garments such as sweatshirts and heavy coats may not be sufficient if they do not have good resistance to the penetration of the air stream between the fibers. To block the wind and prevent the loss of body heat in this way it is not necessary to increase the layers of clothes on the skin, but it is sufficient to choose the right fabric. A good windbreaker, however light and thin, can be much more efficient than a wool coat in keeping the body warm! The ideal rule would be to use insulating fabrics for the maintenance of body heat (wool or fleece) covered externally by a windbreaker able to avoid drafts in the inner layers, with the sleeves and the neck laced by tear or elastic closures .

In this regard, in the best hiking or mountaineering shops there are some machines able to produce wind at about 20km / h to be used to verify the effective capacity of the fabrics to block the advance of the air. Just drive them and place the fabric under examination between the air stream and their hands, verifying the true quality of the garment.

Very similar to the windchill effect, but much more dangerous, is the waterchill effect that causes the loss of body heat when the skin is in contact with water. The ability of water to remove heat from the skin is much more intense than that of the wind and can incur whenever we find ourselves with wet skin due to a sudden storm, a fall in water, a high humidity night or, more simply, because of sweaty clothes. Precisely for this reason it is absolutely necessary to try not to ever wet your clothes or choose little or no breathable fabrics as, in a few minutes of physical effort, we could find ourselves with clothes soaked in sweat.

Let’s try, now, to imagine the combined effect of windchill effect plus waterchill …. the effects on body temperature would be dangerous and disastrous, causing a loss of heat so fast to put us at risk of hypothermia.

If we ever find ourselves in emergency situations under heavy rain and strong winds, the priority would be to protect ourselves from the elements as quickly as possible and keep our clothes dry, at the cost of undressing and staying naked. As contrary to the common logic and instinct this move could make the difference between life and death by hypothermia!

 

Hiking clothing

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In this article we will answer one of the most important questions about mountain life: how to dress during an excursion?

As often happens with questions of this type, however, the answer is: it depends.

There are plenty of things to keep in mind when evaluating the best clothing to wear during an excursion, namely:

The season of the year
The duration of the excursion (More days? Will you sleep outdoors?)
Weather conditions
The activities you plan to do (trekking, survival simulation, climbing etc …
Despite the various situations we may face, there are some basic rules that you can keep in mind so as not to get in trouble.

One of the most important rules is undoubtedly dressing “onion”, that is, using overlapping pieces of clothing rather than a single heavier layer.

This gives us the possibility to add or remove layers based on the temperature, physical effort and weather conditions that may arise.

Below we will see what are the classic components to wear during a winter hike:

Outer shell

With “outer shell” means all those light jackets used as the outer layer of our clothing. Essentially they consist of light, breathable, windproof, anti-tear and waterproof jackets. They have the important purpose of protecting the body from wind and water, while ensuring great mobility and resistance to tearing. As we will also see for the other layers, it is very important that the shell be breathable, so that the sweat of the body can evaporate, leaving us dry. A good outer shell is often made of Goretex or similar fabrics like the PowerTex (owned by the Salewa brand), which is a fabric that is able to evaporate body sweat while preventing the outside water from entering.

Fleece

Underneath the outer shell it is often recommended to wear a heavy fleece jacket. The pile is famous for its high capacity to maintain the heat of the body, preventing it from being dispersed in the environment. Unlike the outer shell, the fleece does not need to be waterproof and tearproof, while it is very important that it is windproof and breathable. There are stacks for all budgets, but it is important to prefer one of quality with one inexpensive. This is because the poor quality batteries are generally non-breathable, and do not resist well to the wind, exposing the wearer to lose much heat in the presence in ventilated environments. Moreover, non-quality fabrics tend to stink if they are wet or if they are impregnated with sweat.

Micropile

the microfleece is a garment with the same characteristics of the fleece, but with a reduced thickness and a shape more adherent to the body. It is an excellent piece of clothing between the outer fleece and the shirt / shirt below. It too must be breathable, to prevent it from getting wet.

T-shirt / shirt

A t-shirt or a shirt is usually worn under the micro-fleece. This garment is often considered one of the most important for a hiker as it is often directly in contact with the skin. There are many fabrics for this type of t-shirts, from microfibre, to thermal fabrics, to simple cotton. Even in this case, the most important feature for this type of garment is breathability! We would not want to find a sweat soup t-shirt in contact with our skin after just an hour’s walk! Personally I find myself very well with the Salewa brand shirts, which I consider very comfortable, resistant to tearing and able to remain absolutely dry even after considerable sweating. Absolutely to avoid the simple cotton t-shirts: they immediately soak with perspiration and stop transpiring, making us sweat even more. In these cases it is better to have a spare t-shirt to replace the wet one once the physical effort is over.

Pants

Even for the pants, what is said for the shell is valid. Being an “external” layer it must be tearproof, windproof, waterproof and breathable. There are really many more or less quality models on the market. Personally I recommend those who have the ability to peel off the lower part of the leg (making them short pants), so as to make them go well even for warmer periods. Absolutely to avoid cotton pants or jeans.
Socks: Generally the socks are the most underrated clothes. As a result, at the end of the day. we often find ourselves having dry clothes and socks impregnated with perspiration and constantly cold feet. This is because the feet, closed in shoes, sweat a lot and impregnate the socks of moisture. Also in this case, therefore, it is preferable to choose socks with breathable materials so as to have dry feet even after several hours of walking. A good pair of quality socks cost around $ 20, all inexpensive spending when you consider how useful they can be.

How to light a fire

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ALL METHODS TO LIGHT A FIRE IN ANY PLACE OR SITUATION

Fire in both survival and normal everyday life is essential.

The fire is useful for a thousand uses such as: cooking food, heating (especially in cold climates), boiling water or food to eliminate them from bacteria, keep predators or annoying insects away, heat the water to wash, signal, dry clothes etc …

When you leave for an adventure in the wild nature it is always useful to start bringing with you a lighter or some matches (better if windproof and anti-humidity), or a flint or bar in magnesium.

FIRESTEEL

The firesteel is always recommended in survival guides as it always works and runs out over very long periods, to use it just rub the knife or any other tool in steel against the bar in order to create sparks that with the right bait lighter a fire.

MATCHES

To create waterproof matches, immerse them in liquid paraffin or nail varnish.

FIRE STONE

If you find flint stones (pyrite, flint …) you can use the sparks created by their rubbing to set fire to the bait, or by rubbing against a steel tool like a knife.

THE LENS

If the sun is warm, the power of its rays can be exploited using a lens.

You can use a magnifying glass, a spectacle lens, the lens of a watch face, the lens of a camera, the bottom of a bottle or any other glass object that can concentrate the sun’s rays. Lighting the fire with this method requires patience and steady hand, the time it takes to turn it on depends on: from the area in which you are (in an equatorial area you will do very quickly), from the power of the rays and also from the weather. The bait that you will use with this method should be as dark as possible (dark colors capture more sunlight than clear ones).

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BAIT 

The bait is of primary importance for starting the fire and for setting it must be dry, soft and soft and possibly dry.

For the bait you can use: mosses, lichens, bark splinters, dry leaves, fuzzy flowers like thistles, dry grass, grasses, wild panicles, dry dung of herbivores, marrow of plants like elderberry.

It is always advisable to keep the bait in a dry place and keep a stock ready to light a fire.

If you have some alcohol or gas, wet the bait to start combustion faster.

Resin of pine cones and pine logs are excellent fuels, as is the resinous birch oil.

Once a fire is accessed, baits can be prepared for future ignitions, burning parts of marrow or fibrous plants, dry wood and dung. They are allowed to carbonise on the fire and then stored in a dry place.

TURN ON THE FIRE WITH THE BOWL

Friction method: The principle of the bow is based on friction, that is on the friction between two parts between which friction is present.

The bow is a very ancient method of ignition and requires patience, time and effort.

Take a green branch (flexible but resistant) at least 50 cm long and tied at either end a rope, a lace or a strap not so tight, so as to create an arch.

Wrap the rope around a stick of about 30 cm with a diameter of 2cm (not resinous) the driest and hardest possible. The stick will act as a drill, then create a point at one end.

In order not to hurt your hand and to put pressure on the stick, cover the top point with a hard wood or a convex stone or a shell or a shell.

Now prepare a dry wooden board at least 1 cm thick, which will serve as a base.

Never use resinous wood such as pine but orient yourself to wood such as willow, poplar …

On the wider side of the tablet dug in the upper part a shallow hole (at least 1 cm from the edge), while in the lower part corresponding to the hole make an inverted V-shaped groove, which will serve to collect the dust produced by the rubbing of the bow with the table.

Just in this blackish powder produced, the spark will form.

Insert the stick in the hole of the table and holding it steady with the foot rotate the drill moving back and forth the bow (as if it were sawing).

When you smell combustion, increase the speed.

The drill runs better if lubricated with a little bit of grease. If it is too stiff it is necessary to twist a little rope around it again.

While making the movement do not stop otherwise the area will cool immediately and you should start again.

When enough blackish dust has accumulated in the V-shaped incision, blow slowly into the groove and bring the bait closer together. When the flame is created, add more bait and then the firewood.

The knife for survival

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For all those who move for a camping away from Europe, for a trip away or in a hostile area without the comforts and comforts we are accustomed to, it is always advisable to use suitable equipment and clothing for the area in which you will go.
An indispensable item that should never be missing in your surviving equipment is definitely the famous THOUSAND USES KNIFE OF SURVIVAL.

Owning a cutting tool in a survival situation can certainly make the difference, in the market there are different types and costs and it is easy to get lost in the purchase. We can affirm that in case of necessity any tool able to cut will be useful (even a table knife). But if we want to buy one we must take into account some things, one in the first place is:

What should we do? Fishing, hunting, mushrooms, survival

but also

Where should we go? Forest, mountain, savannah, jungle …

Surely the factors to be taken into consideration, besides what we want to spend, are:

  • Blade material: among the best materials we find stainless steel (inox) and carbon (carbon steel). The blade must be possibly anti-rust; as far as stainless steel blades are concerned, this problem does not exist (this type of steel does not rust if not in contact with harmful products), while iron and carbon rust.

The carbon blade is light and very resistant, it sharpens quickly but does not keep sharpening for a long time. The stainless steel blades, on the other hand, are more hygienic, sterile and resist corrosion in the most diverse conditions.

  • The hardening of the blade: the tempering is very important as it determines the hardness and consistency of the blade, therefore also the duration and the quality of the sharpening. If a blade is not hardened sufficiently, it will not sharpen well but it will be more flexible, if it has been hardened too much it will tend to chip easily or break if used improperly (for example to pry) but it will be harder and sharper. Metal hardening during production can be controlled using consistency scales. The Rockwell scale is used to determine the hardness of the materials, for example a blade between 55 and 58 Rock-well (HRC) is a good compromise for a hunter or hunter knife. There is also a Vickers scale to measure hardness.
  • Shape, size, dimensions and weight: a good knife should be light but strong, not too large, comfortable and not too long. Although these specifications may not be good for some uses; for example in tropical areas machetes are used (60 cm and more of blade) and large double-edged blades. The ideal size of a blade is from 8 cm up to 15 cm max 20.

To avoid that the knife breaks in half at the height of the handle it is always better to choose knives where the blade and the handle are a whole (ie a single piece). The shank must be coated with a resistant and handy handle, better if screwed and not glued so that it can easily be replaced. The wooden handle is certainly the most proposed even if there are materials such as micarta, g10, g11, FR-4 and FR-5 equally excellent. Avoid knives with metal or poor plastic grips. The knife must adapt perfectly to the shape of your hand to be as effective as possible (this is also why the choice of the knife is a totally subjective and personal thing).

Accessories

if we want a multi-purpose knife that includes useful accessories for survival; we can opt for a product that contains at least most of these objects:

  • compass,
  • water purifying tablets (optional),
  • fishing gear (nylon thread and hooks),
  • windproof and anti-humid phosphorus matches,
  • tinderbox,
  • hacksaw,
  • blade,
  • altimeter (optional),
  • mini harpoon (optional),
  • mini lance (optional),
  • tourniquet (very useful, for example hooked to a forked branch you can make a
  • slingshot to hunt small animals),
  • whistle,
  • magnifying glass to light the fire (optional),
  • gavel (optional),
  • shear cutter,
  • screwdriver (optional),
  • stone for sharpening or sandpaper,
  • needle and suture thread,
  • scalpel (optional),
  • sewing set (needle, a few meters of cotton or nylon thread, some buttons, a safety pin).
  • magnesium bar (produces sparks to ignite the kelp by rubbing against the blade of the knife),
  • morse alphabet table with international ground-air signaling code,
  • “ELIOGRAPH” signal mirror (even if the blade of the clean knife can still reflect the sunlight),
  • behind the scabbard can also be printed a ruler with different units of measurement useful for any measurements,
  • rope (at least 10 meters, tied around the sheath),
  • in addition to the knife, an additional multi-purpose blade can be crammed into the
  • scabbard, which can be used as a harpoon, corkscrew, cutters; and if holes are present, they can be used to tie it to a stick and create a lance.

A complete knife should contain almost all these objects crammed between scabbard and inside handle.

The sheath, for example, can be covered with a military lanyard, perhaps useful for replacing worn shoe laces, making traps, making ligatures useful for the construction of various tools, to build a shelter. Remember that knowing how to do knots well is very important, take a look at this article: how to make knots.
The blade can also have a serrated part on one side, which can come in handy as a saw.

A good knife has a non-slip handle and a watertight upper compartment to put inside objects that can be damaged in contact with water (objects can also be placed in plastic bags with hermetic seal).

In a sudden survival situation we could hardly be equipped with a thousandusi knife, in this case the need sharpens the wits. Depending on where we are we can make a cutting tool by sharpening a bamboo splinter or using a pointed stone. Waste can be an excellent exploitable resource, now with global pollution we can find trash in every part of the globe, for example from a can you get a very useful sharpened sheet as well as from a bottle you can get a shard of sharp glass . The basic rule is to observe, have an eye for detail, use ingenuity but also imagination … with these premises we can exploit the territory around us and the elements inside it at will.

SOME USEFUL ADVICE

– Store the blade carefully, removing stains, organic or vegetable sticky substances and rust (a rusty knife loses its effectiveness in cutting, also if neglected rust will literally eat your knife).

– Always keep the knife clean, dry and sharp and do not use it on things that could damage it or break it.

-Do not leave it in contact with the ground, moisture and dirt will ruin it.

– Keep away from the fire.

– We can clean it using ash or sand. Always clean it after each use will greatly increase the longevity of our knife, after each use clean the blade, dry it and close it again. Put some oil on the joints; in this way the blades will open more easily.

– At hard temperatures the blade tends to become more fragile, keep it close to the heat of the body to prevent it from freezing, avoid sharp blows against hard objects or the blade will break. Also avoid sudden changes in temperature (if you put a frozen blade on the flames, it could break). If the blade is too cold you could stick to the skin, if you do not try to pull the object because you would tear the skin causing large wounds, in this case the ideal solution and urinate or pour a hot liquid gradually on the area until you off.

– Sharpening must be moderate but done frequently.

To sharpen you can use a stone, the blade of another knife or anyway a metal object. The best stone to use is the porous one (gray and siliceous pebbles are better than quartz, for example the smooth stones taken in a river bed are excellent), if instead you have a professional stone for sharpening or two ceramic rods (a raw and polished) well come. Before sharpening lubricate the blade using vegetable oil, water or saliva is also good.

– If the handle breaks or the blade breaks, do not despair; in a survival situation nothing is thrown away; the blade, even if broken in half, can still be exploited to make cuts, while if the handle yields it can be replaced by inserting the blade into a piece of hard and resistant wood or rebuilding it by heating plastic, provided that you find it.

Complete survival kit

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This list is purely indicative, the equipment can change depending on the area in which you venture, from personal availability, from the number of people you are in, from the vehicle you are traveling (car, camper), from the type of activity that will be played, etc.

SURVIVAL KIT:

OUTFIT

  • Multi-purpose knife (example survival knife)
  • Waterproof, windproof and anti-humidity matches,
  • or Refillable lighter, or Zippo with petrol,
  • Steel (or firesteel, recommended as very practical and functional).
  • Magnifying glass to light the fire.
  • Compass and map of the place (it is important to know how to correctly use the compass and topographic map otherwise you will not need anything, see orientation); or GPS (technology makes life easier, even if batteries have their limits).
  • Fishing kit (hooks, seals, nylon thread, synthetic baits)
  • Heliograph (it is a reflecting mirror for signaling)
  • Whistle to request aid in the mountains
  • Wanting laser pointer
  • Candle (useful for carrying the fire without turning it off, light, signal, in extreme cases you can also eat)
  • Pencil and notepad to take notes and keep notes on time and travel.
  • Plastic bags (useful for various uses such as waterproofing equipment, better if biodegradable).
  • Aluminum blanket (manages to maintain 80% of body heat, reflects heat from the fire, isolates from moisture, protects from rain and water, thanks to its reflective power can be seen from above or used as a Also folded heliograph takes up very little space).
  • Detergent for hands and face.
  • Soap or soap powder
  • Razor blade
  • Needle, threads, buttons and safety pins
  • Twine, rope, laces
  • Repellent for insects (especially against mosquitoes)
  • Sun protection
  • Waterproof torch (low consumption or dynamo)
  • Water bottle – Gavetta
  • Pills or tablets for chlorine or iodine water purification (also called potable tablets or tablets: see here).
  • GSM cellular phone or satellite phone (possibly with charger for cellular charge with dynamo crank), see here.
  • Digital wristwatch (trekking model) with altimeter, temperature indicator ° C- ° F, barometer, alarm clock, stopwatch, compass, waterproof and backlit.
  • Small Swiss army knife (Victorinox type) with file, nutcracker, pliers, removable support for screwdriver bits, scissors, wrenches, corkscrew, open boxes, tweezers:

Depending on the availability of cargo also:

Not all these objects are indispensable.

  • Sleeping bag
  • Bivouac sack (bivi-bag)
  • Ax, wire saw (less cumbersome) and small hammer
  • Pickaxe or picozza
  • Two 10 cm nails (for the most disparate uses: traps, shelter …)
  • Wire for trapping
  • Mousetrap
  • Sling
  • Screwdriver, wire cutter shears
  • Machete (useful in the jungle)
  • Harpoon or fishing rifle
  • Red flares or smoke flares
  • Cyalume (fluorescent bars)
  • Thick rope, rope with carabiners
  • Hammock
  • Glasses with interchangeable lenses, completely dismountable and easily cleaned (if you go to the mountains use a model with certified 4 protection).
  • If you wear eyeglasses, bring a spare pair
  • Waterproof tarpaulin
  • Gas stove
  • Lantern
  • Combustible tablets
  • Paper from aluminum, transparent film and Scottex paper
  • Handkerchiefs and toilet paper
  • Towel and wet wipes
  • Foldable camping shovel
  • Saucepan, glass, cutlery and plate (all completely in steel)
  • One liter kettle (diesel, petrol, oil)
  • Strobe light
  • Binoculars
  • Purifier – camping water purifier (microfilter – microfilter):

 

  • Potassium permanganate tablets (KMnO4 can be useful for various purposes: dissolved in clean water provides an antiseptic solution to disinfect wounds – few grains in a liter of water, left to settle for more than half an hour, make it potable – scattered and stirred on the snow produces a purple red color visible from very far away – mixing half a teaspoon with one of sugar is obtained, rubbing the mixture with a stick, a sort of hot charcoal, great to light the bait for the fire). ATTENTION: respect the dosages and instructions for its use as it can be harmful. PS: now it is difficult to find because its marketing has been limited by the EEC as it can also be used for the refining of cocaine.
  • American pattern adhesive tape
  • Wanting sandpaper
  • Indelible pen (can be used to write on any type of surface, to remember important things or leave messages and directions)
  • Stock of mineral water, freeze-dried energy rations (eg pemmican, BP-5), food bars and snacks.
  • Cooler bag, thermos
  • Hot water bottle
  • Anti-mosquito tent
  • Insulating sheet, blanket or mat
  • Nail clipper
  • Rubber tube
  • Books and manuals on survival (first aid, poisonous animals and plants, survival rules)
  • Emergency radio with solar dynamo (optional)
  • Sheet for signaling (optional)
  • Table with Morse alphabet, international code, emergency numbers, body signaling and ground-air signaling methods.
  • If in possession, also carry a pistol or rifle with ammunition, blank cartridges and signaling rockets.

THE BACKPACK

The equipment should be able to fit all in a backpack that should not be too heavy or uncomfortable for the back.

Remember to bring only the equipment you need and not to fill the backpack with unnecessary and superfluous things.

The weight of the backpack should never exceed 35% of our body weight, the equipment inside it must be strictly selected. The ideal weight should be a quarter of our mass.

For sale you can find lots of backpacks for survival with strategic sections, rich in pockets, waterproof, removable like those of soldiers etc …

Remember to waterproof objects that could be damaged with water such as clothes, medicines, etc. (seal in plastic bags or watertight containers).

Balance the weight of the backpack and make sure that any objects do not bother you on the back.

Put the things you need less at the bottom of the backpack, while keeping the most important things at hand.

Part of the equipment can also be carried on (survival belt tied to the belt, ready-to-wear items in the pockets of trousers, etc.).

Recommended maximum weight: from 20 to 30Kg.

Ideal weight: not over 15 kg.

 

Complete First Aid Kit

Remember to always check the expiration date of each drug before bringing it back. Temperatures that are too hot or too cold can shorten the life of a drug (for example, an antivperous serum resists a few months out of the refrigerator, while some drugs with heat are dissolved).

The first aid kit must be light and is purely oriented to the type of area and activities that will be done. If you are traveling with a vehicle geared towards a complete first aid kit, if you are traveling with a backpack, choose a basic first aid kit that is packed in a possibly waterproof case (if there is the possibility that the kit can get wet , and the case is not watertight, close the kit in an intact plastic bag making a nice knot tight).

  • Tourniquet
  • Plasters of various shapes and sizes
  • Bandages and gauze
  • Scalpel, needle and thread (sterile)
  • Pliers, scissors
  • Sterile single-use syringes
  • Absorbent cotton
  • eyewash
  • Decongestant for the ear
  • Aspirin
  • Pads for seasickness or car sickness
  • Antiallergic tablets
  • Dextrose pills
  • Cortisone
  • Polyvitaminic tablets
  • Mercurochrome (for disinfection and cleaning of wounds and as a healing wound for minor wounds, burns or abrasions)
  • Iodine tincture (antiseptic for external use and also useful for the disinfection of surface water 3 drops per liter, leaving to act for 30 minutes, also useful for the treatment of light radioactivity contamination)
  • Protective spray for dressing wounds, injuries and sores
  • Instant ice
  • Pomate (for sprains, burns and bruises)
  • Painkillers and anti-inflammatories
  • Antifungals (for yeasts and hyphae)
  • Sedatives, painkillers and cardio-respiratory analectics
  • Analgesics (to decrease pain)
  • Antipyretics (to lower fever)
  • Paracetamol (analgesic and antipyretic action)
  • Broad-spectrum antibiotics
  • Antibiotics for intestinal and anti-depressive infections
  • Antispasmodics (for diseases or syndromes of the gastro-enteric apparatus)
  • Antihistamines (for allergic manifestations)
  • Syrup
  • Spray or sore throat tablets
  • Serums (eg antivipera)
  • poison extractor
  • Hand gel with amuchina
  • Denatured alcohol
  • Ammonia
  • Toothbrush and toothpaste
  • Dental floss
  • Thermometer
  • Pressure meter
  • Portable defibrillator
  • Mouthpiece for mouth to mouth breathing
  • Lip stick
  • Protective cream SPF 50+ in case of intense UV

GARMENTS – CLOTHING

The clothes change a lot from area to area. The basic rules that must be followed are: practicality, comfort, resistance, washability and breathability.

Garments should be lightly soiled, loose and of good fabric.

  • Durable cotton trousers and jeans with a tactical belt
  • Long-sleeved cotton t-shirts
  • At least two cotton shirts
  • Light shoes or boots with spare laces
  • Various pairs of socks (light and heavy)
  • Heavy sweater
  • Windbreaker with hood (if possible in Gore-Tex)
  • Cotton shorts shorts
  • Cap, headgear, balaclava
  • Waterproof cape
  • Neckerchief (against dust or sun)
  • Leather work gloves
  • Ski gloves (in cold weather), mitts
  • Snowshoes
  • Poncho

THE FOULARD: this accessory can be very useful; in addition to using it as protection from the sun as a headgear, or to retain the sweat of the forehead, it can also be used as a protection against dust, to protect the throat from cold or wind, as a support to hang a wounded arm around the neck make a hemostatic ligation and to request help moving it up and down.

Some Useful Advice for the survival kit:

– Wearing a tactical jacket can cram equipment for survival in the various pockets.

– In the jungle and in the desert, prefer clothes such as long-sleeved shirts and long trousers to avoid burns, insect bites and wounds caused by brambles and thorny plants.

– In harsh climates, cover hands, feet, head and ears well. For the body to protect itself by wearing multiple layers and creating various inner tubes between the garments, if you do not have t-shirts put a newspaper or plastic bags under the shirt.

– The feet should always be kept dry and comfortable (stop often to remove pebbles and dust from shoes). If the boots are wet, wear a plastic bag.
– Clean garments are more efficient from the insulating and thermal point of view than the dirty ones.

– In harsh climate never keep your clothes wet on you while in very hot and humid weather never take them off.

– A dry but dry garment is better than a wet one, so in case of soaking clothes: take them off, squeeze them and let them freeze on the snow, finally remove the ice and put them on, you will have removed moisture from the clothes.

– To march on the snow better wrap around the shoe an impermeable sheet.

– To walk on the ice without slipping insert the socks over the boots.

– In the desert always cover the head and the nape with a piece of damp and clear cloth to avoid any insolation.

– In areas with the surface completely covered with snow, wear glasses or cover your eyes with a bandage to which you have made two holes for the eyes, to avoid blindness from snow.

– To clean clothes you can use the ash of the bivouac.

USEFUL DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED IN TRAVEL:

  • Identity card
  • Passport
  • Tax code and health card
  • Driver’s license
  • Bank account
  • Depending on the country: visa (of stay, tourist …), immigration form, return ticket, revenue stamp etc …
  • Vaccination booklet
  • Sheet with phone number of family members and blood group.
  • Also bring cash (in small denomination notes) and if you own it, an international credit card.

To conclude, remember that you should not save money by buying products of poor quality, especially for the most important equipment and clothing, better spend some extra money and have equipment that can save your life in unfavorable conditions:

How to build a shelter

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IN ANYWHERE AND IN ANY SITUATION EXPLOITING WHAT WE OFFER THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT.

An essential rule that underlies survival is to build a shelter and light a fire before nightfall. Once you have done these two things you can move away to look for water and food.

The construction of a makeshift shelter depends very much on the availability of the surrounding environment and on the person’s capacities.

Depending on where you are there are basic rules to follow to quickly improvise a simple and effective shelter.

A good shelter allows us to sleep better and then rest our body and mind. Being able to rest at least a couple of hours to regain strength is very important in terms of survival allows you to think better and put you in a positive psychological state.

RULES TO FOLLOW FOR THE BUILDING OF A SHELTER:

Always choose a safe area, assessing possible dangers and unforeseen events.

Prefer a shelter behind a rock or a rise so you can keep an eye on only one road.

Avoid shelters near slopes or lands at risk of falling rocks.

If you are the victim of an accident, use the disaster vehicle as a shelter or use its parts to build one. Pay attention to the tanks if they are ignited or at risk of fire.

If you wait for help, always try to build the shelter in an area clearly visible to emergency teams and keep a fire lit or more fires to be glimpsed more.
Before it gets dark it is useful to stock a firewood, and keep it close to the shelter in order to feed the fire by waking up at regular intervals.

Keeping a fire lit near the shelter, as well as signaling the position and heating up in cold climates, will keep feral animals away.

Remember that at night the equator arrives suddenly and in the mountains it gets dark early. In the desert the nights are very cold, due to the strong temperature range between day and night.

If you travel to a campsite always carry a sleeping bag and a waterproof sheet.

In survival equipment there should always be an aluminum isothermal blanket (aluminum emergency blanket). This aluminum cloth is useful for a thousand purposes: it is waterproof, it protects from rain, wind, humidity and snow, it also heats from the cold and protects from the sun as it reflects it, its reflection can be useful to postpone the heat of the fire and to make reporting, also folded takes up very little space.

If you find a natural shelter (cave, cave, crevice, protrusion of a rock, under a tree that a thick foliage, etc.) or artificial (mountain shelter, mine, abandoned vehicle, shack etc.) take advantage of it do not waste time building one.

IN HOT CLIMATES:

In very hot climates, building a shelter is useful not only for spending the night but also for sheltering from the sun and finding a bit of refreshment in the shade on the hottest days.

In areas with a lot of vegetation (jungle) the ideal shelter is the raised one (if you own a hammock is perfect), but if you sleep on the ground it is important not to sleep in direct contact with the ground but spread one or more towels or in absence create a bed with branches, twigs and many leaves. It is also advisable to clean the surrounding area so that it is as uniform as possible (to prevent small animals, snakes and other reptiles from approaching and hiding for example in foliage, bushes or grass bundles).

Burning the area around the shelter can be a great way to keep unwanted animals away.

If the area is particularly at risk of storms, do not build the shelter above or near tall and isolated trees.

Never build a shelter in a dry river bed.

If you build a shelter near waterways, rivers and seas, consider a possible flood, high tide, flood, flood or overflow.

Before using a cave as a refuge, carefully check that it is not inhabited by ferocious animals. If the cave is empty but inside you find faeces and fresh food leftovers immediately gone, it means that at any moment the landlord could arrive.

If the area is full of mosquitoes and other annoying little insects: light a fire creating a very thick smoke, use an anti-mosquito repellent, cover the shelter or the hammock with an anti-mosquito net, burnt the dry stools or a termite nest on the fire , wear clothes that cover your whole body like long-sleeved shirts and trousers, also wear light gloves and a cover-up, sprinkle with mud, avoid building a camp near swamps, ponds or marshes.

IN COLD CLIMATES:

If the temperature is cold, build a small shelter so that the heat lasts longer and does not get lost inside the shelter itself.

It is very important not to fall asleep if the shelter does not protect safely from the cold and therefore from freezing and frostbite.

Never fall asleep with wet clothes. In these conditions it is better to stay vigilant and try not to doze off. If the outside temperature is very cold to build an efficient shelter and light a fire nearby, it also helps to put under the clothes a padding of luck using straw, paper, grass and dry leaves …

Never sleep in direct contact with the ground if it is wet or snowy, create an insulating layer with foliage, twigs and twigs.

Light a reflector fire in front of the entrance to the shelter to heat the shelter.

A good shelter in the snow can be created by digging a deep hole or a trench covered with a cloth or vegetation (avoid friable and too soft snow).
Illustrated examples of shelters in snowy areas:

Tip: a lit candle increases the heat inside the shelter.

In an ice area or with temperatures where the air is below zero, you can build an igloo.

Building an igloo takes time and patience, and you need to know what type of snow to use.

The snow to be used for the blocks must be compact, old and beaten by the wind.
Cut the blocks of snow with a long knife or a machete if you do not have them, improvise with a wooden board with sharp edges (measures 30x10x2 cm) or a long piece of hard plastic.

Describe in the ground a circle of the desired diameter (if the igloo is for one person the recommended diameter is less a meter). Beat the snow with your feet to form a uniform floor.

Prepare the blocks in these proportions (length: from 50 to 80 cm, width: from 20 to 30 cm, height: from 15 to 30 cm).

If you do not have a measuring tape, use your SPANNA that is the measure between the thumb and the little finger of the spread hand. The span of an average man is about 20 cm, (it is still advisable to memorize his own measurement).

Begin placing the blocks following a spiral or simply looking increasingly narrow and inclined towards the inside.
The shape of the igloo that must be created must be semi-spherical. The blocks for the igloo can also be obtained from the inside by digging a hole to make the structure deeper.

The taller bricks must be lighter and inclined inwardly so as not to give too much weight to the structure. The last block on top to plug the igloo must be conical and must be placed very carefully so as not to collapse.

Once you have finished the cover, cover the outer surface of the igloo with a layer of fresh snow and close the entrance with a blanket. It is recommended to protect the igloo by creating a small access tunnel.

Once the dome is finished, make an entrance hole in the wall protected by a small vault that serves to prevent the entry of gusts of wind (the hole is useful for the exchange of air). A smaller hole at the top serves as a chimney pot when the fire is lit.

Light the fire in the igloo to melt the inside walls; if the walls start to drip, let in some cold air, removing the blanket from the entrance.

Even if the outside temperature is very cold, the hot red embers inside will make the environment warm and welcoming.

IMPORTANT: In an igloo you can hardly capture the external sounds (the ice is a bad conductor of sound as well as the snow), so you may not hear the rescue (eg airplane noise, screaming).

To build a solid and safe shelter you will undoubtedly need ropes, but it is not enough, you will also need to know how to make simple but resistant knots; I suggest you read the following chapter: STRUCTURE AND NODES.

How to find water in extreme situations

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The man is made up of about 60% of water, and normally must take from 2 to 3 liters per day. It should be borne in mind that the demand for water increases, in the presence of hot or humid climate and fatigue, even up to 5-8 liters per day.

In case of survival it is essential to be able to drink at least 1 liter of water a day, rationing it and drinking it in small sips, first wetting the lips to make the most of every drop.

Water is synonymous with life if you can resist without eating even up to 40 days, without water you can only last a couple of days in conditions of rest.

THINGS NOT TO DRINK:

Even if you are in extreme survival situations, NEVER EVER DRINK:

  1. Alcoholic beverages: In cold weather, drinking alcohol can give a sense of warmth at first, but then you have a more intense body cooling than you had before drinking.
  2. In hot weather, however, dehydrates the body. Drinking alcohol also decreases mental and motor skills as well.
  3. Urine: Containing waste from our body is seriously discouraged to drink their own urine or that of animals.
  4. Blood: can cause diarrhea, infections, gastro-intestinal problems or other metabolic problems.
  5. Sea water: contains too much salt, in case of lack of water you can resist longer without drinking or drinking sea water because salt water dehydrates and causes kidney damage.
  6. Gasoline or chemical compounds (such as diluents, detergents …)
  7. Stagnant water of ponds, pools …
  8. Ice or snow (we would consume unnecessary heat of our body, better dissolve it in a saucepan or in the absence of fire put it in a dark container)
  9. Whitish liquid, milky sap of some plants (particularly bright and bitter in color, it could be poisonous).
  10. Dirty water with foam and bubbles and nauseating smell.
  11. Water where there are dead animals inside.
  12. Water of strange color or where the surrounding vegetation is dead or missing.

 

Never drink cold water if the body is hot..

NOT SMOKING! Smoke removes liquids and vitamins from the body.

The urine is formed with the waste substances of the body, but in extreme situations, if no water source is found, it can be drunk. However, consider urine as a last resort.

Water can transmit all sorts of viruses and microbes.

Symptoms resulting from the contamination of contaminated water are: dysentery, severe and prolonged bloody diarrhea, fever, weakness, viruses and diseases (typhus, cholera, etc.) or the presence of parasites in the body.

 

HOW TO FIND THE WATER:

With limited water, start drinking after 12 or 24 hours to make the most of the water in our body.

THE RAIN:

You can collect rainwater in clean containers (the more you have more water you can collect). You can use as a container anything that is able to retain water (bark or large leaves, coconuts, plastic bags, waterproof clothing and so on …). If the collected water is dirty it is necessary to boil it or purify it before drinking it.

To collect rainwater, you can tie a t-shirt or piece of cloth to a tree, so that the end of the cloth slopes towards any type of container.

You can attach an absorbent cloth just above the shoes to collect rainwater in the grass.

You can build a canopy with bamboo, placing a horizontal channel to collect water in a small pot.

You can make a hole and spread a large waterproof cloth over it, creating a basin to collect rain water.

Or you can dab a wet surface with a cloth and then wring the contents in a saucepan.

The dew present on plants and stones can be collected with a garment.

WATER INDICATORS:

To find rivers, lakes and streams you have to follow the points where the vegetation is greener or for example follow the animals (birds, mammals, bees, ants, a path recently beaten by the animals or the presence of excrement near a crack).
If you are surrounded by a mountain range, water usually collects in the less inclined base as the flow is less rapid.
The caves are created of water, inspecting them to the bottom you can find water streams.
Gorge and narrow crevasses can give life to small springs.
AVOID to dig into porous and crumbly soils as the water accumulates too deep in those cases.

WHERE DIG TO FIND WATER?

Digging in certain places (beds of dry rivers, dry lakes, valleys, wetlands, green areas …) you could be able to accumulate water inside holes or be able to concentrate small streams of water; in these cases, however, it is necessary to boil or purify the water.

There are some plants that love water such as willows, elders, reeds, water lilies. You can try an excavation in their vicinity to find water.

In the greenest and brightest grassy areas where the stalks are tall and fleshy, you can try a digging for sure the soil is wet and there is the possibility of finding water. Fresh water can often be found behind the sand dunes along the sea.

HOW TO COLLECT WATER IN A SWAMP:

Leave the mud to stand for half a day and then boil it for 10 minutes or alternatively filter with the filtering technique (explained later in the article).
Where to dig in a swamp?

WATER IN THE FLORA:
You can get water from many plants, fruits, legumes, and plants.

For example coconut, watermelon contain a lot of water, but also the fruits of edible plants contain a good percentage of water (lemon, mango, avocado, pineapple, kiwi, oranges, and so on …).

Some plants store both water internally and externally (the top of a cactus can be cleaned and squeezed).

The green bamboo canes if bent can provide water.

GETTING WATER THROUGH CONDENSATION:

You can use a cloth or a bag to drink condensed water on surfaces such as glass, metal, plant leaves.

 

Put a plastic bag around a green tree branch (see photo), seal and hang a stone or a wood at the base to drain the water, obtained through condensation, downwards.

Mount the breathable bag in the morning and collect the water at the end of the day.

Use a different bush every day.

 

DISTILLATION:

With this system in 24 hours you can get from 0.5 liters to 2 liters of water. Doing more holes even more.

Dig a hole deep and about 1 meter wide, place at the bottom a container with a tube coming out of the excavation (the straw will serve to avoid disassembling all the equipment every time you want to consume water, however if you do not have a little tube can be done even less).

Fill the bottom of the hole with vegetation rich in water content (wet leaves …). Cover with a sheet (about 2X2 m) in nylon or plastic, blocking the sides with soil and stones so as not to allow air to pass.

Finally, a concave shape is made to the cloth by placing a stone in the center.

The purifier works both day and night and produces distilled water as the temperature inside the hole rises and the steam produced by the vegetation sticks to the sheet which is colder and the condensation slips into the container in the form of droplets.

 

 

WATER OF THE SEA:
Never drink sea water directly, the salt it contains, in the long run, can even lead us to death; it is however possible to boil it and collect the steam generated by boiling with your clothes and then wring them out with a waterproof cloth or a plastic bag; however there are substances suitable for desalting sea water.

Solar energy desalinator: Link

Another method to purify salt water is to fill a hole of seawater and throw in hot stones, the steam produced must be collected with a garment or cloth, and then squeezed into a container to be drunk.

INFO: Distilled water has no taste. Transfer it from one container to another or mix quickly to enrich it with oxygen and make it tastier.

HOW TO GET DRINKING WATER:

Use substances such as iodine or chlorine (2% iodine tincture: 5 drops in a liter of clear water, 10 drops in dark water, with this method wait at least 30 minutes before drinking; potable tablets or tablets: 1 tablet for clear water , 2 for dark water). Tablets or tablets to

PURIFY WATER:
Boil in a saucepan for 10 minutes. (CLASSICAL METHOD)
With the hot rocks: (see video)

Use the filtering method (ie, to filter the water through several layers) before watering the water to clean it from dirt and other impurities.

Inside a container pierced at the bottom there are several layers (starting from the bottom) of gravel or polished pebbles, pulverized vegetal carbon obtained from the combustion of wood, sand or earth, very fine and finally again gravel. If you do not own a container you can use three sheets tied to a 1 meter tripod made of 3 woods. On the towels put in this order (from above) gravel, coal and sand, or always in this order grass, sand, coal.

Then boil for 10 minutes.

In the absence of containers, a sock can be used. Fill it with charcoal, soil and fine sand. After filtering, a drop of urine can be added and the mixture stirred. Once the water has been filtered out of impurities, boil it to make it drinkable.

Purify water with solar energy:
-Solar water Disinfection (also known as SODIS): Link
– There is also a recent invention: Solarball.

Principle of Inverse Osmosis: Link

With ultraviolet rays:
It is a small tool that can be truly providential. It works thanks to ultraviolet rays (UV) that in a short time can purify the water.

It is a small tool that can be truly providential. It works thanks to ultraviolet rays (UV) that in a short time can purify the water.

Principle of silver ions with a pocket ceramic filter: Link

USEFUL TIPS:

Where the animals drink, the water is certainly harmless even if there is no safety that it is drinkable.
By chewing on a blade of grass or sucking a wet pebble, you can relieve your thirst for a while.
If you do not have at least one liter of water a day in a hot climate do not eat, this serves to save the body’s water reserves.
In the open sea the dehydration of the body takes place more quickly (the causes are: wind, saltiness and sunlight that reflect on the sea).
In addition to fatigue, the arid, humid, torrid or windy climate, stress and fear also contribute to sweating a lot and thus dehydrating the body.
To limit the consumption of water in the wet and humid areas to march in the less hot hours (sunrise, sunset, night) and at a regular pace.
If you have little water, ration it like this:

DAY 1: do not drink.
FROM THE SECOND DAY TO THE FIFTH: drink at least 400 ml
FROM THE FIFTH DAY: from 55 to 225 ml depending on how much water you still have and the climate.

How to survive in the Arctic and Antarctic polar circle

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Arctic and Antarctica are the coldest and most inhospitable places on Earth.
Surviving in these areas requires great willpower but also good knowledge.

Frosty temperatures did not allow the development of cities in these areas.

The populations that populate the Arctic are only two: the INUIT and the YUPIK, while the Antarctica is uninhabited (with the exception of the approximately 5,000 people who live in over 80 scientific bases, and which are reduced to 1,000 during the winter months).

However, both areas are visited by thousands of people each year for sporting, scientific and tourist purposes.

 

GEOGRAPHY

 

THE ARCTIC POLAR CIRCLE

The Arctic includes the Arctic Ocean, the lands at the extreme north of Russia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Finland, Sweden, Norway and the islands facing them, including the Svalbard islands, the Francesco Giuseppe, Novaja Zemlja, Severnaja Zemlja, the islands of New Siberia, the island of Wrangel, the islands along the coast of Alaska and the Canadian Arctic archipelago.

 

THE ANTARCTIC POLAR CIRCLE

It includes all the lands and seas that surround the South Pole. Antarctica is considered a desert, 98% of its territory is covered by a thick layer of ice.

 

GLACIAL TEMPERATURES

In the winter period at the North Pole temperatures range between -25 ° C and -40 ° C and in the innermost parts can even reach minus 60 ° C while at the South Pole temperatures range between -40 ° C and -80 ° C depending on the areas.

CURIOSITY: on July 21st 1983 in the Russian Antarctic base of Vostock the lowest temperature ever recorded in nature on earth was recorded -89.2 ° C.

In the summer period at the North Pole temperatures are between -10 ° C and 10 ° C in some areas are also touching 30 ° C, while at the South Pole rarely temperatures rise above -20 ° C.

 

FLORA AND FAUNA AT THE POLES

ARCTIC

Vegetation composed of small creeping shrubs, herbaceous plants, lichens and mosses.

Numerous animals, both marine and terrestrial, have adapted to these glacial areas. We find mammals like the polar bear, the arctic fox, the caribou, the musk ox, the ermine and the arctic hare; Among the sea creatures there are seals (Greenland seal, banded seal, ringed seal), walrus and other cetaceans including the Greenland whale, the narwhal and the beluga. In addition, the skies from the Arctic are flown over by a large number of bird species.

ANTARCTICA

At sea we find a very rich fauna consisting of crustaceans, krill, salpe, jellyfish, seals, cetaceans, whales, sea lions, sea urchins and many other fish.

On the ice floe we find penguins and seabirds like the albatross.

While within the continent the only forms of life found there are bacteria, micro-organisms and some invertebrate species.

In the sea there are many algae, on the ground there is a vegetation consisting almost exclusively of mosses, liverworts and lichens.

 

THE EQUIPMENT

The ideal clothing must keep warm body, hands and feet; avoid sweating; allow freedom of movement as well as being comfortable.

Layered clothing is recommended to create air chambers that isolate from the cold. Several overlapping layers of light fabrics are more effective than one or two layers of heavy fabrics.

For the survival kit and clothing we recommend: the ever-present multipurpose knife, sunglasses, binoculars, snow goggles against UV rays, waterproof jacket (Anorak or Parka), fleece clothing, hat (ski mask), boxing gloves snow, scarf, aluminum blanket, thermal and non-synthetic clothing, sunscreen, swimsuit, comfortable snow boots, rubber boots (at least knee-high), waterproof rucksack, snowshoes and ice ax .

Remember not to leave dark-colored objects on the snow, as you may not find them anymore (dark objects capture the sun’s rays more and heat up, sinking into the snow).

If a cold metal object sticks to the skin, urinate on it.

No vaccinations are required to leave these areas.

Precautions are recommended for problems with hypothermia, sunburn, dehydration, frostbite and snow blindness. Bring the usual medicines and possibly sea sickness tablets.

The snowshoes will allow you to walk more easily on fresh snow, so they are an extremely recommended tool to have available.

 

You can improvise skis with two wooden boards and wire or a makeshift sled to cover a long descent in less time.

 

Snow blindness

The snow that reflects the ultraviolet rays is very dangerous for our eyes.
UV rays directly and repeatedly hit the cornea causing inflammation.
The symptoms are excessive tearing, pain in the eyes. It can also lead to partial or total momentary blindness. Snow blindness is not permanent and quickly regresses within a week. Generally the sight reappears after 18 hours.
To avoid exposure to snowfall, wear polarized sunglasses or attach a bandage around the eyes with two small slits to see.
If you are affected by snow blindness: cover your eyes and apply fresh bandages paying attention to possible frostbite.

 

ORIENTAR WITH THE JOINTS

The sastruga is an irregularity produced by the wind on the fresh surface of the snow. It has a variable shape according to the intensity and duration of the wind and the surface conditions of the snow.
In practice it is a snow dune formed by the wind (the principle is similar to that of sand dunes in the desert). Observing the dune, one notices that on the side where the wind is blowing the upper edge forms, this is an excellent indicator of the main wind direction. So if you are at the north pole follow the sastrugi to reach the sea or the coast.
Wrong direction to the poles can be fatal if you take the wrong direction you could enter the heart of the continent where the temperatures drop considerably and the flora and fauna are becoming increasingly scarce, and with these assumptions you would go towards certain death.

FOOD (HUNTING AND FISHING)

In harsh climates, our body consumes twice the daily calories it normally consumes during the day.

The easiest foods to find are fish, small animals and bird eggs (in these areas the birds lay their eggs directly on the ground, so look carefully at the ground).

Larger animals (seals, foxes …) can be trapped or stunned by hitting them on the head with a heavy object. The animals in these areas know little about man and it is easy to approach them even with primitive expedients (for example by hiding them under a white cloth or by catching them behind).
If you find any droppings and footsteps it means that there might be some animal nearby, you might find reindeer, hares, foxes …
If you find a herd or a group placed on their path of traps (the more you prepare the more likely you will be that someone catches a prey), then try to circumvent them by going the other side. To do this move slowly and camouflage, the animals around here have a good view and a great sense of smell (walk with the sun behind as the animals tend not to turn towards it to avoid blindness). Seize the pack suddenly, behind them, and try to scare him by trying to direct him to the area where you have hidden the traps.

Once the animal has been captured it is necessary to open it and eliminate its entrails before it freezes and becomes too hard.
It is always better to boil or roast meat before eating it (the animal could be sick), same thing is true for fish.

Capturing a medium-sized animal will feed you for about two weeks. In addition, the animals in the glacial areas have a heavy fur that allows them to survive the great cold. You can skin it and use its mantle to shelter from low temperatures.

The little vegetation that is found in these places is edible, from it you can make excellent soups.

FISHING IN ICE

If you find a frozen lake you can drill ice to try to fish deep.

Attach the hook on a 1 meter long rope and tie it to a stick that will fit on the hole. To prevent the entrance hole from freezing, you can place a pine branch in the hole.

 

The icy water

If you unfortunately fall or slip into the cold water of a lake or river you leave as quickly as you can, survival in freezing waters is measured in minutes. Try not to panic; shake hands and feet to reach the shore. Once you leave, do not stand still. Move to warm up the body. If the clothes are wet remove them and squeeze them then let them freeze and rindossateli. A dry but frozen garment is better than a soggy one.
Move your hands and beat your feet for 5 minutes to prevent freezing.

A way to redo the blood to the fingers and vigorously shake the arms back and forth at chest level.

Also try to light a fire to recover heat, if you can not immediately go on the road without ever stopping.
Pay close attention to where you walk, the shock for sudden immersion in very cold water can also cause a cardiac arrest due to the contraction of the veins in the body, or you can faint and drown.

With wet clothing the body quickly loses heat, if the body temperature drops too much, hypothermia risks.
Hypothermia begins when the internal temperature of the human body falls below 35 degrees. Serious hypothermia is considered when the internal temperature reaches 26 degrees, below 24 degrees, hypothermia is considered lethal.

Remember that on a frozen lake, on a pack or on an icefield, 5 cm thick ice is sufficient to support the weight of an adult man.

FIRE

In a glacial atmosphere, lighting a fire to warm up is essential.

Waterproof matches or a flintlock are indispensable in areas such as these.

Finding firewood is quite difficult and even more so in Antarctica, but in the areas closest to the coast, especially at the north pole, some vegetation is found.

To complicate things is that often the wood found is wet and moist.

You can use seal grease as fuel but also as a cosmetic to combat frost.

SHELTER

To shelter from the cold and spend the night you can build the classic igloo or a shelter in the snow.

Remember that in a hole under the snow it is warmer than inside a metal hull like an airplane.
Never sleep in direct contact with the snow, isolate yourself from the ground by spreading a waterproof cloth or branches and leaves (needles).

Always cook inside the shelter to keep the environment warm.

 

THE WATER

Heat the snow and ice before drinking them in a saucepan.
Never heat sea ice to drink it as it contains salt.
Never suck ice or snow to avoid losing unnecessary heat to the body.
Drink the water that accumulates in the puddles on the ice or pierce the ground to take advantage of the water with a primitive well.

Do not drink alcohol, even if it immediately warms up, immediately after it causes a venous contraction that causes an even stronger and more dangerous cooling of what you felt before drinking.

REPORTING

About 80% of the white fish that is found on supermarket counters comes from the Arctic seas, the waters of the North Pole are constantly navigated by fishing boats. If you can reach the coast you can surely meet one.

Important: to indicate on the snow use colors that are in contrast with white (shake a piece of red cloth is ideal). Red is a very visible tint on a snowy background.

To signal a fire that produces black smoke, you can burn rubber and plastic, two materials that are not difficult to find on the polar coasts (in fact in these areas ships and boats often abandon waste of various kinds).

If you can build a raft or a boat you can try to get closer to the navigation routes in order to have more chances of being rescued.

To move around they can also use floating ice floes.

Important: the raft must be resistant and able to keep you afloat. If the boat of fortune yielded, you would have little time to be rescued, before dying in the icy waters.

Basic survival kit

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Are you worried about losing yourself in the forest? This article shows you what to keep handy for a survival kit.

 

1 – Buy a lunch basket, a bag, a shoulder bag or a three-pocket backpack. You will use it to contain everything you need.

 

2 – find the essential:
Bottle of water
7 m at least light nylon rope
Bandage
Lighter
Matches
Small vase
Whistle
Swiss Army knife

 

3 – Then put the following objects together:

Space blanket
First aid kit
1 meter of aluminum (to cook, signal and collect water)
Magnifying glass
Cotton balls
Safety pins
Insect Repellent
Scotch tape
Flashing light or preferably a rechargeable crank light
Triangular bandages
Compass
Mirror
Gloves
Waterproof poncho
Pen
Small notebook

 

4 – Put everything in the bag. Place the objects in the best way.
Everything you think can be useful to survive and cook, such as a modular fishing rod or a small gun (if possible)

 

Tips
If you get lost, STOP. Stop, think, observe and plan. Use common sense.
Avoid wearing cotton. Cotton soaks in water and makes clothes unsuitable to prevent hypothermia. All you wear should be wool or polyester.
Perhaps the most important object that does not seem so obvious is the whistle. Blowing into a whistle consumes much less energy than shouting and can be done for longer periods of time, to increase the odds of being saved.
The insect repellent spray, sprayed on cotton, ignites the fire.

Warnings
Never intentionally lose yourself. Use common sense.
Do not play with fire.
Keep the kit away from children.

Things you will need
Space blanket
Bottle of water
First aid kit
1 meter of aluminum (for cooking)
Superglue tube
Flint
Lenses to light a fire
Disinfectant for water
Cotton balls
7 safety pins
Insect Repellent
Pen with ammonia
Scotch tape
Flashing
Sharpener
Bandage
Compass
Whistle
Signaling mirror
Poncho
Pen
Notebook
Bottle of water
Self-powered light and radio
Military Rations