Home Blog

The easily contracted diseases in a survival situation

0

In a survival situation, contracting a disease can further aggravate our psycho-physical condition, also decreasing the chances of survival.

We must evaluate situations very well, being very careful not to do anything that could expose us to contagion.

The main avenues of contagion

Through the water:

World health services identify the types of water-related diseases in 5 points:

bacterial and viral diseases transmitted through contaminated water (typhus, cholera, dysentery, legionella, gastroenteritis and hepatitis);
infections of the skin and eyes due to contaminated water (trachomas, leprosy, conjunctivitis and ulcers);
parasites related to water (amoebiasis);
diseases due to vector insects, which multiply in humid environments, for example flies and mosquitoes (malaria);
diseases due to lack of hygiene (Teniasi).
Water can transmit all sorts of viruses and microbes. Symptoms resulting from the contamination of contaminated water are: dysentery, severe and prolonged bloody diarrhea, fever, weakness, viruses and diseases (typhus, cholera, etc.) or the presence of parasites in the body. One of the most serious diseases is malaria, it causes the highest number of deaths in the world.

NEVER DRINK:

  • Alcoholic beverages.
  • Urine.
  • Blood.
  • Sea water.
  • Ice or snow.
  • Gasoline or chemical compounds.
  • Stagnant water of ponds, pools (which has no outflow channels).
  • Whitish liquid, milky sap of some plants (particularly bright and bitter in color, it could be poisonous).
  • Dirty water with foam and bubbles and nauseating smell.
  • Water where there are dead animals inside.
  • Water of strange color or where the surrounding vegetation is dead or missing.
  • Always purify the water to be safe. The classic method involves boiling it and filtering it if it is dirty.

3 methods to purify the water recommended by the green berets:

  1. Drinking water tablets (1 for clear water, 2 for dark water).
  2. Boil the water for at least 10 minutes.
  3. 5 drops of 2% iodine in a container, wait 30 minutes before drinking. 3 drops of iodine per liter if the solution is 3%.

Through food:

eating raw meat or fish, eating live insects, eating animals already found dead are things to avoid in a survival situation. Hunger can lead us not to think clearly but we must think: “what sense does it fill our stomach with food that once ingested could make us sick and cause vomiting, diarrhea, decreasing our energy, vitamins and mineral salts even more?” .

Some rules to eat safely:

  • Eat only freshly hunted or fished food.
  • Cook the food well.
  • Avoid raw meat dishes.
  • Avoid cibarvi of plants that you do not know.
  • Do not eat mushrooms.
  • Clean your hands before eating.

Through an exposed wound: cuts, stings, small wounds, abrasions and abrasions if not medicated can be a simple way for the proliferation of bacteria. Always dress with long clothes (even humid climates) covered arms and legs to avoid bites and bites of insects and small cuts with wild vegetation (branches, prickly or irritating plants …).

Some advices:

Stop immediately to medicate and cover the wounds.
Wear a long-sleeved shirt, trousers and a scarf around your neck to secure every area of your body.
Use anti-mosquito repellents to avoid punctures.
Also disinfect bites and insect bites.
Remove any parasites attached to the skin.
Check your hair often.

Hands-to-mouth passage:

the hygiene of the hands and nails is very important. If we found some food; before eating it let’s remember to wash our hands, the easiest way to catch viruses is through the passage from hands to mouth. Even the fingernails must be clean, in fact under the nail can easily nest and proliferate various microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, etc … See chapter dedicated to hygiene.

AVOID touching with dirty hands: eyes, mouth, nose, ears, intimate parts but also wounds, food and water that you must consume.

Through the animals:

Lice can transmit typhus, mosquitoes can pass many diseases (malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever), flies can infect you with dysentery, cholera, African human trypanosomiasis, fleas can pass the bubonic plague and pulmonary, ticks the maculose fever of the rocky mountains. Bites and bites of animals can infect you, for example bee venom or wasp can trigger allergies in the subjects brought or the bites of the bat can pass the rage. Attention also to snakes, spiders and scorpions.

Unsuitable clothing:

clothing not suitable for climatic conditions (heat, frost, rain, humidity, wind) could weaken your immune system and make you more exposed to diseases.

Diseases

HYPOTHERMY:

More known as frostbite. Hypothermia begins when the internal temperature of the human body falls below 35 degrees. Serious hypothermia is considered when the internal temperature reaches 26 degrees, below 24 degrees, hypothermia is considered lethal. The freezing of tissues occurs when their temperature falls below 4 degrees, the action of cold immediately affects the nose, ears, fingers and feet, this because they are the most exposed parts of the body, so you must cover them and keep them warm.

Prolonged exposure of hands and feet to extreme cold can cause the tissues to irreversibly necrotize, in these cases unfortunately it is necessary to proceed with the amputation, even if you can wait several days or even weeks before proceeding with the operation surgical. Particular attention should be given to the defrosting that must be gradual to avoid serious injuries caused by the too rapid expansion of the blood vessels.

If your hands are frozen or in any case very cold, DO NOT place them above the fire, but let them warm up gradually with their heat. NEVER drink alcohol to warm up, as at the beginning they give a sense of warmth but immediately cause a drastic cooling of the body. Possibly drink a warm and sweetened drink. To keep your hands warm you can put them under your arms.

HYPERTHERMIA:

known as heat stroke (strong increase in body temperature 39 ° / 40 ° C). The first symptoms of hyperthermia are a severe headache and a sense of tiredness, if you do not immediately find shelter in the shade and a little water, the situation precipitates quickly, you stop sweating and you feel stunned and if you do not receive adequate care you can even die. The first aid in cases of hyperthermia must try to maintain the vital functions of the injured person, bringing him into an airy environment but without causing a sudden cooling. The first thing to do if it’s very hot is to cover your head with whatever you have available. You can use a large piece of cloth or a cut of a garment (better if clear). To find some relief you can urinate on the headgear. Also cover areas of skin exposed to sunlight to avoid burns.

Pirexya or Fever: fever is a classic of survival and of those who travel a lot. As soon as the first symptoms appear, one must try to understand from what the increase in body temperature can result.

Body temperature (febrile states):

subfebrile 37 ° – 37.3 ° C
low-grade fever 37.4 ° – 37.6 ° C
moderate fever 37.7 ° – 38.9 ° C
high fever 39 ° – 39.9 ° C
hyperpyrexia> 40 ° C
Heat stroke (temperature increase):

hyperthermia 39 ° – 40 ° C
Severe hyperthermia 40 ° – 40.9 ° (risk for life)
very serious hyperthermia 41 ° (the brain begins to suffer damage)
hyperthermia with certain death + 45 ° C
hyperthermia with immediate death + 50 ° C
HYPOTHERMY (temperature decrease):

hypothermia 35 ° – 32 ° C (chills).
moderate hypothermia 32 ° – 28 ° C (soporific state, the patient responds to stimuli).
severe hypothermia 28 ° – 24 ° C (unconsciousness, detectable vital parameters).
very severe hypothermia 24 ° – 20 ° (absence of vital signs).
deep hypothermia 20 ° – <14 ° (almost certain death).

Drugs to lower fever:

Acetylsalicylic acid if the fever has inflammatory origins (Aspirin), paracetamol which is a classic antipyretic (Tachipirina), ibuprofen (analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic) and ketoprofen similar to the previous (Oki). In case of hyperthermia, dab the body with water and alcohol.

Types of fever:

Continue: body temperature rises and remains stable (eg lobar pneumonia).
Discontinuous: fever fluctuates by 2 ° / 3 ° C during the day (eg presence of bacteria in the blood)
Intermittently: alternating periods of fever and normal temperature (eg malaria).
Recurrent: fever oscillates from 3 to 5 days (eg bacterial peritonitis).
Oscillating: the fever oscillates from 10 to 15 days (from bacterium eg brucellosis).
fever: it is an intermittent fever that does not exceed 37.5 ° C and lasts for weeks, months and sometimes even years.

Causes of fever:

Infectious diseases.
Destruction of tissues (tumors, wounds, burns, fractures).
Non-infectious inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, gout).
Brain injuries.
Excessive increase in heat production (thyrotoxicosis).

Stages of fever

First phase: the increase in temperature can be slow or abrupt (with chills, goose bumps and tremors).
Second phase the fastigio. This phase is classified for the duration (hours, days, weeks) and for the type (continuous, intermittent fever …).
The third phase is the defervescence which can be slow and gradual or abrupt (with abundant sweating).
Intermittent fever

Bidaily fever: 2 febrile states and 2 relapses (eg sepsis).

Ague fever : Rises suddenly lasts 1 day, and then disappears for 3 days, then reappears and so on (plasmodium vivax).

Quartan fever: On the 1st and 4th day (plasmodium malariae).

Quintan fever: fever on the 1st and 5th day (richeziosi).

Diarrhea:

Diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems are also a classic of survival and of those who travel a lot. Diarrhea consists of an increase in the daily stool emission and a decrease in their consistency (liquid stools, and sometimes blood). Half of the diarrhea are triggered by bacteria such as Shigella or Salmonella and Rotavirus, Adenovirus and hepatitis viruses. In addition, diarrhea can be triggered by toxins produced by bacteria present in food or in contaminated water, in this case the frequently responsible bacterial agent is Staphylococcus.

Types of diarrhea:

Acute diarrhea: from one day to a maximum of two weeks. It is almost always triggered by infectious agents. Causes of diarrhea may be the use of non-potable water, the presence of waste not disposed of, and the inadequate cooking of certain foods.
Persistent diarrhea: from one day to four weeks.
Chronic diarrhea: over a month.
In case of diarrhea it is better to wait, and to free the intestine from potential germs, before taking care. If, on the other hand, it is a question of infections, it is better to start treatment immediately.

Treatments: use of anti-diarrhea to reduce symptoms and supplements to restore lost fluids. However, the root cause of diarrhea must be found in order to proceed with the true antibiotic or probiotic cure.

Diarrhea causes water loss and salts to the body, they must be quickly reintegrated (salts and sugars, carbonated drinks such as Coca Cola are also astringent, pretzels contain sodium and potassium, broths and teas).

Possible causes of diarrhea:

bacterial or viral infections, including “traveler’s diarrhea”.
presence of intestinal parasites.
diseases of the intestine (colitis, celiac disease, chronic inflammatory diseases, irritable colon).
psychophysical stress.
Dysentery: an infectious disease affecting the digestive system. It is caused by the ingestion of infected food and water containing microorganisms (shigella and entamoeba histolytica). Symptoms include diarrhea with presence of mucus and blood, and also fever and vomiting.

Dehydration: this pathology is found when the amount of water taken is less than the water lost. The heat, the cold, the sweat, the fever, diseases like vomiting, diarrhea can cause the body to lose a lot of fluids that must be replaced as soon as possible to avoid dehydration. The body must take at least 1.5 liters a day of water. The symptoms that we will experience in case of dehydration will be: thirst, dry skin and mouth, dizziness, palpitations, weakness, asthenia, fatigue, drowsiness and numbness.

How to avoid dehydration

Rest each time it is possible.
Do not smoke or drink alcohol.
Stay in the shade or cool in warm climates.
Never lie on the ground interposing anything between you and the ground (the soil causes heat to dissipate to your body).
Eat a little if you have little water (digestion takes a lot of fluids from the body).
Breathe with your nose and avoid speaking.

Starvation or vitamin deficiencies:

In a survival situation we could suffer from malnutrition. The lack of the right nutrient supply can also lead to anemia (decrease of hemoglobin in the blood), beriberi (lack of vitamin B1), pellagra (lack of B vitamins and vitamin PP) and scurvy (vitamin C deficiency). A prolonged state of starvation (over 40 days) can cause permanent damage to organs and can even lead to death. Treatment for starvation is a recovery of nutrients lost slow and gradual. Recovery must be progressive to avoid re-feeding syndrome (which can also be fatal).

AMS:

In the highest areas (generally above 2500 meters, even if the most sensitive subjects show the first symptoms at only 1500mt) it can incur in altitude sickness, a pathology of our body that manifests itself because we are not used to the altitudes. The symptoms are: headache, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, fatigue or asthenia, dizziness or dizziness, insomnia and irritability. Mountain sickness can also prone to death (cerebral edema and pulmonary emphysema). At the onset of the first symptoms immediately drop in altitude. Drink plenty of water or soft drinks. You can also take drugs like Diamox or Decadron.

Other conditions that can alter our psycho-physical state:

Fear and anxiety Continuous states of anxiety and terror can weaken our immune defenses. Stress, on the other hand, is a topic of discussion among experts, some say that stress spurs the body to give more to others, instead they say that stress is not positive and weakens the body. But both agree that too high stress is harmful to the mind and the body.

Poisoning:

From poisonous plants, fungi or poisonous animals.

Beware of poisonous plants (hemlock major, saponaria officinalis, delphinium, digitalis, frangola, atropa belladonna, datura stramonium …).

Never eat mushrooms (they also have a low nutritional intake, avoid them if you do not know them 100%).

Pay attention to snakes and scorpions.

Poisonous fish: scorpion fish, tracery or spider fish (there are 9 species), parsnip, puffer fish, catfish, stone fish, lion and scorpion, jellyfish (among the most dangerous we mention the Sea Vespa), some species of conus.

But by sea:

The irregular movement of water can lead people predisposed to feel a sense of general malaise and anxiety that soon turns into pallor, cold sweating, nausea, vomiting and severe headaches. Those who suffer will be physically weakened and will have morale on the ground. If you are on a raft, keep busy, give yourself some homework, try to pass the time in this way, you will reduce the chances of someone suffering from seasickness.

If the victim vomits, rinse the boat well to eliminate traces and the smell of vomit. Cover it, let it relax and rest, do not give it food. If you have drugs suitable for this condition administer them (eg, dimenhydrinate). The seasickness lasts a few hours try to stay calm and take long and deep breaths. Avoid drinking gassy, exciting drinks (coffee, tea), or alcohol. Avoid staring at the horizon.

Fractures, sprains, dislocations, cramps.

Wounds: in case of clean wounds and well disinfect the area, remove any foreign bodies and cover with a plaster. Check the wound from time to time and redo the dressing. Beware of parasites that may find hospitality in the wound.

Bleeding: if a significant amount of blood is lost, the body will go into shock (the state of shock can also be reached with excessive fluid loss through sweating, vomiting and diarrhea). See also first aid.

Allergies: Many plants, even if edible, could trigger an allergic reaction, which is why it is very important to know which plants you are intolerant (the main test for the diagnosis of allergy is the “prick-test” skin test). If an allergy is triggered, symptoms may be treated with antihistamine drugs such as cetirizine, desloratadine and loratadine. Cortisone can also be used.

For urban survival:

RADIATION: (in case of nuclear attack). Absorbing massive doses of radiation can lead to death, this event is known as radiation poisoning. The doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by an organism are measured in rad or gray, while the biological effects on the human body are measured with seviert or rem.

From 0.5 Sv up to minus 1 Sv you can have symptoms also serious (temporary sterility) but still transient.

From 1 Sv to 2 Sv: 10% mortality within a month.

2 Sv – 3 Sv: 35% mortality within a month.

4 Sv – 6 SV: death in more than half of the cases even in less than a month.

Over 6 Sv: survival impossible beyond the month.

Unfortunately, there are no medical treatments that can reverse the effects of radiation, and can manage the damage caused to organs, reduce symptoms and alleviate pain. However, even with non-fatal exposures, the chances of developing cancer in the future can be increased.

Aging of nerve agents:

After use of GA, GB, GD and Vx gas by terrorist organizations or enemy nations.

Symptoms of poisoning include:

  • Epistaxis
  • Chest pains
  • Weakening of the eyesight and narrowing of the pupils
  • Excessive sweating
  • Defecation and involuntary urination
  • Contractions, convulsions and loss of balance
  • Headache
  • Drowsiness
  • Suffocation and death

Antidotes: atropine and obidossima.

Surviving in Mumbai: You are never quite prepared for India

0

The city encountered on the road that until today has created more chaos in my mind was Mumbai. The traveler, tourist or worker who is, is never prepared to face the shock wave of contrasts that is thrown at you against every step taken within this world. I want to tell you how my childhood dreams have been subjugated and improved by some moments of my first trip to India, teaching me some basic rules that I should have known before venturing into that reality.

In 2012 I was asked to attend an international event in Mumbai for the presentation of new projects in the power generation sector. So I took the opportunity to get a taste of the reality in which my grandfather had lived and on which I had heard so many stories.

I have always associated India with the scent of tea, mango and moisture that came from the clothes of my grandfather Vittorio when he returned from his long business trips to the country of tigers, to stories about the incanters of improvised snakes that died in the seventies roads and beaches of Goa, images of floods due to monsoons, stories about the impassable sectarian walls that separated the rich from the poor. All these images in my mind could finally have an encounter with reality.

At the first step in the tunnel that connects the aircraft to the earth a gust of humidity September September monsoon invaded my nostrils: it was the same smell that I felt in the old suitcase full of labels of my grandfather. The first approach with that world has therefore reassured me, since I thought I was ready and to know, even partially, that reality. Never error was more serious …

Recovered the luggage, I ventured to a prepaid taxi to head to the hotel. Of course I tried to get in line with other Westerners, but the problem is that the locals threw themselves like crazy stones on the reservation desk. Talking to other people we started to say “maybe it’s just a case, it will not be everywhere, maybe there’s a problem and therefore they can not respect the line …”. We were still virgins of the place and therefore we could not know that every inch in India must be earned with sweat, blood and cunning.

After about thirty minutes of orderly waiting in line I decided that, if I wanted to have at least a minimum chance of reaching the hotel, I had to adopt a more aggressive behavior, so I studied with my occasional companion in arms, the English Thomas who he was going to visit a friend, a strategy to obstruct the side passage and facilitate the disposal of the row. We then placed several carts on the sides of the taxi booking counter to create a containment barricade towards those who tried to enter from the sides, finally managing to get the reservation ticket with the driver number.

Always use the prepaid taxi if you do not want to get lost in contracting on the price of the race, in case you want to have fun, you always propose the amount to the driver and offer him a quarter of what he asked. If he refuses, go to another; keep in mind that with a thousand rupees (about eleven euros) you can find someone willing to take you around the city every day.

A little advice: when you leave the airport, try not to go back, because in India all the entrances are guarded by the army, which will not let you in if you do not have an outgoing flight. Remember to always bring the ticket printed on paper when you have to leave otherwise … you will not enter or lose hours and hours to discuss with the military!

The noise just came out of the airport is deafening. The horn in India is used to signal the most varied range of activities and feelings, including overtaking, bad mood, happiness, presence, birth of a child, belonging to a group and a myriad of other things that you never thought of. If you were in Mumbai traffic and there was silence, start worrying: something catastrophic is going to happen and the world will end! You will also notice that on many vans appears the writing “horn ok please”, which is as if in Italy we wrote “please ring the horn because otherwise I feel alone”.

After spending two hours in the car to cover a distance of 6.4 kilometers – yes, that’s right … I used to load baggage on my shoulder and go on foot – and discovered with amazement that the suitcases were still firmly anchored to the roof of the car with a very strong twine like that to hang clothes, I entered the hotel.

If instead you do not have luggage, rely on a rickshaw that for a few rupees will thrash in traffic as if there was no tomorrow. Of course you will have to get the same amount of courage to launch yourself with a parachute.

Next time I will tell you about the Pharaonic and slum buffets, two opposing aspects that coexist in Indian reality. I let you know that once I arrived in Italy I experienced a particular psychological state, which by definition can be compared to the Stockholm Syndrome, created by the sensibly traumatic, violent and unexpected experience unexpected awareness belonging to that place …

 

How to Survive Living by Homeless

0

There are about 80,000 homeless people, also known as homeless people, in Italy (but certainly the number is much greater). A huge number that makes us immediately understand how this condition, although problematic, allows a perfect survival.

The important thing is to know the sources of livelihood that, in our days, are more than enough for everyone, even for this very large population.

This condition has recently become a real life choice. Many people, belonging to any class and social category, suddenly choose to change the course of their existence. Tired, perhaps, to pay taxes, the standard of life in society, more or less heavy commitments and the frenzy of everyday life, prefer to close in a new world, that of the homeless. Moreover, those who take this path often do not do it for economic reasons.

Here’s how to live as a homeless person

The art of arranging is the first rule of life that must immediately take the upper hand.

The shelter where to live and where to shelter, in case of bad weather or at night, can be chosen among many alternatives such as, for example, the hall of a door, a sheltered corner of a courtyard, under a bridge or a large cardboard box .

Idormel cold is the number one enemy for the disadvantaged. For the clothes there are no big problems whatsoever. It is sufficient to rummage in garbage bins or, better still, in those dedicated to the collection of used clothing: there will certainly be something useful. Alternatively you can ask directly to some parish or caritas.

Setting up a complete clothing is very simple: a scarf, a coat, heavy shoes for the winter and wool sweaters are easily found. The lucky ones can spend the night in the rooms of the railway stations, often heated by radiators.

The greatest difficulty is in finding food. But even this factor, today, is easily overcome.

Many municipal administrations dedicate homeless special facilities in which they can consume a free hot meal. Even many parishes offer the poor a warm dish, a piece of bread and lots of human warmth.

It is then easy to find, in the street, some pious soul that gifts of milk, fruit, bread or other edible stuff. The most desperate can find the unsold goods of the day before at the bakery or ask for waste at the restaurant. At the limit, alms is the winning weapon with which you can make ends meet for a few days.

The proximity of a dog is often essential for a homeless man. The true friend of man never looks, in fact, in the portfolio of his master but simply in his heart and in his soul.

The cleanliness of one’s body is, of course, a factor that is almost completely lacking in these conditions. Public baths, in these cases, are a great help. Even a small supply of water in your shelter can be very useful.

Even if the homeless people are fairly supportive and the homeless are always available to each other, there is no lack of episodes of raids, thefts or discomforts in general. Especially at night, the defenses must be increased, especially if you are sleeping inside the public gardens, where the vandals could leave an indelible mark.

One of the greatest dangers is, naturally, represented by diseases. Since we live in close contact with the garbage and extreme climatic factors determine the worst living conditions, pneumonia is one of the most common diseases among the homeless. There is no remedy, unfortunately, to this problem, if not be directly taken care of by the heads of the medical sector.

In any case, those who undertake this kind of life, do so to escape a type of society that has come to create, often severe and indifferent to the various problems of this poor people, but often he is happy to be a homeless or clochard .

Bioterrorism: 80 thousand at risk for super-resistant bacteria

0

This is the title of today’s article ANSA.it which reports a dossier according to which, more than 80 thousand people would be at risk of infection by super-resistant bacteria. The article is just yet another exploit of a hypothetical bio-terrorist act (or viral outbreak), but are you sure you know everything?

Pandemic risk?
Let’s start by saying that in the world there are hundreds and hundreds of P4 level laboratories in the world, of which only 135 in the United States, but now the question is legitimate and it is:

 

What is a P4 level laboratory?
The P1 / P2 / P3 / P4 range indicates the hazard level of the laboratory in which 4 is considered the maximum even if there are rumors of a P5 level (Read more: Biosafety level).
In this kind of laboratory biological and chemical research and experimentation is carried out also on possible and “hypothetical” bacteriological weapons, with this however do not point the finger!
Some P4 level laboratories use a transparency protocol, which means that everything inside is superintended or otherwise accessible to third parties (usually the state or pharmaceutical companies).
Many pharmaceutical companies need P4 level laboratories by force of things, for testing drugs and vaccines, so they are not all terrorists!

The question that will come to mind is: yes, but there are hundreds and hundreds of pharmaceutical companies with their respective laboratories? The answer is no: there are also private and defense laboratories. Beyond this we can not know and is clearly confidential, so pull your conclusions.

Now let’s analyze the difference between bioterrorism and outbreak; the definitions can be considered as a consequence of the other but they are different.

Bioterrorism vs Outbreak
Bioterrorism is considered an intentional act with the sole purpose of reaping as many victims and making as much audience as possible, for religious reasons, policies, etc.

The outbreak, however, is a “leak” or leak of substance. This substance can be a virus or live bacteria from the laboratory. It is usually understood as a failure of the air recycling system, filtering or a laboratory accident where containment has failed. If then it is by human hand, we can not know, and clearly becomes bioterrorism).

The question that will whisk you in mind from the beginning of the article is: but what is my survival index in this case?

Survival in the event of a bioterrorist attack or outbreak
To be honest low, really low: if you live in big cities and you are one of those who think “the government will take care of it” your survival index is negative. Unfortunately, it is not known when and how an infection or an outbreak will occur. The only weapon available is prevention and knowing your enemy …

Start from this fact: bacteria and viruses have already won the battle. Every year, even the only flu becomes more resistant to drugs and this because it evolves due to the excessive use of antibiotics and drugs. The human being uses more and more medicines and genetically transmits immune weaknesses to his heirs in hundreds of years. The body of the modern human being is no longer able to fight many diseases alone.

That said, do not be demotivative, indeed. You must know your enemy and especially the vectors of contagion.
If you know how to avoid infection and take any precautions you are 80% successful!

Avoid the contagion carriers
Every day we are exposed to millions of different viruses and bacteria but our body in 90% of cases can eradicate it and avoid infection. So say thank you to your immune system and do not weaken it with intensive use of medicines. Avoid medications if not absolutely necessary. Obviously the immune system is affected by bad habits such as smoking, drinking or using drugs.

By referring to the article at the top we talk about at least 3 types of pathogens and specifically:

– Escherichia Coli
– Klebsiella Pneumoniae
– Aureus Staffilococco

Now that you know the tools to prevent infection, study how it is contracted (via air, via contact, via fluids …) and put into practice your way of prevention. We summarize the contagion vectors below:

– Airplane (sneezing, air and ventilation filters, crowded places, …): use mask, respirator or gas mask. In order not to look like complete idiots in public, a single-use filtering mask will suffice to give you a good 50% protection. At 100% it would be good to also protect the eyes with full-face glasses, but in public it is not advisable;
– Contact (touching infected objects, ingesting infected substances, …): in extreme cases do not consume fresh food, drink water or substances whose origin is unknown. Wear disposable gloves or under-boots, wash your hands often and use skin-based detergents based on surfactants. I repeat that these are extreme cases. Basic good hygiene and good sense will help you avoid various infections;
– Fluids (blood, mucus, saliva, …): in these cases I think there is little to say, the same rule applies above.

Ultimately for not going long:

1) remember that the battle with pathogens you have already lost, but not the war!
2) prevention and knowledge is your one and only weapon;
3) be prepared and reactive;
4) I will never get tired of saying it, inform yourself and inform yourself, check often the highlights from the WHO website always look for new news and try to be always 3 steps forward!

Anker folding solar panel

0

Nowadays we are invaded by a myriad of portable electronic devices, some, often of dubious usefulness; others, on the other hand, can make the difference in emergency situations.
Whether it’s a smartphone, a GPS, a radio or a tablet, they all have a common denominator and in a sense an Achilles’ heel: battery life.
To make up for this problem, today we review a really interesting product: Anker Folding Solar Panel. The manufacturer, Anker, has seen us along and designed a 14w folding solar panel. Whether for a campsite, an excursion in the mountains or just to have a source of electricity in case of emergency, this little device knows how to assert itself.

The folding solar panel
The Anker Folding Solar Panel opens through a flip-off closure and is made up of 4 mono-crystalline solar panels, a pocket containing 2 USB sockets and an extra space for storing power cables or devices.
Taking advantage of the 4 eyelets arranged at the sides can be attached to the backpack, the tent or a tree.
Equipped with “PowerIQ” technology, USB ports can read any type of device that is Apple, Android, etc.
Designed to power 2 devices, through 2 USB ports, it manages to deliver up to 2A / 5V which makes it suitable for loading GPS, MP3, tablet and smartphone navigators.
The panels are covered with PET plastic, hardened and melted in a polyester supporting structure which gives it extreme solidity and strength both at impact and atmospheric conditions.

PRO
– Portability: 27x17x4 cm for 770g of weight;
– Excellent value for money;
– Charge also with cloudy sky;
– Reasonable charging times, 2h from 0 to 75%;
– Solid and recyclable materials;
– Anchor eyelets;
– Double USB port with “PowerIQ” system;
– Infinite energy at no cost;

CONS
– It is not possible to recharge laptops, notebooks or other devices that require more resources;
– At the first use, the smell is not the best. It is not very important for our purposes, but it is still worth pointing out.

 

Some practical uses
Suitable for multi-day trips, where a powerbank may not be enough, we will have our power outlet always within reach of a backpack.

Personally I always associate the solar panel with a 12800mAh PowerBank Anker. Then I connect the powerbank to the output of the solar panel and from the output of the powerbank the smartphone thus avoiding the “overhangs” due to the momentary lack of sun and to have a continuous current output regardless of the weather conditions.

In addition, I recommend it to anyone who wants to have an additional emergency power source.
In case of SHTF it can load any type of equipment up to 2A. If connected to a USB charger you can also recharge flashlights and devices compatible with AA – AAA – 18650 batteries.

Anker folding solar panels, due to their small size, make them an excellent item to insert in our B.O.B. / B.O.V. and they can be truly providential in a potential emergency, of course … weather permitting!

Basic rules to cake with plants

0

THE RULES FOR DISTINGUISHING A PLANT EDIBLE FROM AN UNEVIEBLE

Vegetables are much simpler to find than meat, the human body can survive easily by eating only vegetables for long periods.

There are innumerable plants in the world, and it is practically impossible to know them and distinguish them all, even for the most experienced.

There are places like deserts, both hot and cold, where the flora is reduced to a few species of plants, in this case it is easy to study and store them all or at least most of them; but in other areas, such as the rainforest, it quickly becomes confusing even if it is local. Consider that the rainforest represents two thirds of the world of plants and animals on the planet. The flora is so immense and varied that thousands of plant species are still unknown.

Plants in a survival situation are a very important part: trunks, branches, leaves … can offer shelter, wood for the fire, material for the construction of containers for water and food, tools, cordage, clothes, also from plants we can create medicines (see natural herbal remedies and cure with natural medicine), we can feed ourselves, quench our thirst and even the poison can be useful (we can poison the tip of an arrow to hit a dangerous animal).

That’s why we must learn to know trees and plants to know how to exploit them to our advantage. For example, we can begin to approach this vast world by learning to know the flora present in our region and then expand to the national territory.

Before embarking on an expedition to a different country or continent it is always better to inquire about the type of fauna and flora that you will encounter.

Unfortunately it is difficult to approach this world without having experience in the field even with an illustrated handbook you can never be sure one hundred percent, especially for the most ambiguous species, the photographs of the books are sometimes not so clear and not they illustrate a plant in all its evolutionary stages (very often only the image of the flower is found in books) and even the textual part is sometimes unable to fully describe the sensations that are felt in front of a type of plant such as for example the perfume, the taste, the perception to the touch, the sound that emit if trampled.

Think of the vastness of plants present in the tropics, many of which not even known, there would be an enormous risk of eating them. Hence the rule that prevails above all: eat only what you know.

Some basic rules:

  • If you are not sure of the edibility of a plant avoid it a priori, it is better to suffer hunger pangs than to eat and then get sick.
  • Cooking is very important as it eliminates germs.
  • Never eat mushrooms, there are many poisonous species and it is not worth risking because their protein intake is very low. Cooking or boiling does not eliminate toxic and poisonous substances from fungi. Do not risk there are no antidotes for poisonous mushrooms.
  • Do not eat food with mold.
  • Do not swallow the plants that contain whitish and dense liquid – milky sap (they can be poisonous), or plants that are very bitter and disgusting or that have a showy and shiny color.
  • Cereals are edible (Corn, Wheat, Rice, Millet, Barley, Sorghum, Oats, Rye, Triticale, Buckwheat, Fonio and Quinoa). Do not eat those that have blackish growths instead of seeds.
  • Do not eat the plants with colored sap, which have the fruits divided into 5 segments, herbs with hairs on stems and leaves.
  • If a part of a plant is edible this does not apply to all its other parts.
  • Do not taste the plants you do not know, but if you want to try it, try them in small quantities. Follow this procedure: put them in your mouth but do not swallow them and if chewing you do not feel particular bad tastes like tingling, burning, bitter taste, acid or soapy try to eat a small dose. If after 6 or 8 hours there are no reactions such as vomiting, stomach pain or diarrhea, try increasing the dose and wait another 6 hours and if even in high doses no side effects may be considered harmless.
  • If you notice that you have ingested toxic food, immediately induce vomiting (by inserting one or more fingers to the bottom of the throat), drink salt water and milk.
    Plants that cause skin irritation should not be eaten (rub the lymph on the inside of the forearm, if it is irritated or swollen, avoid it).

How to learn about plants:

Take a ride through the woods with experts in the field, attend a survival course, compare yourself with the farmers, visit the botanical gardens, greenhouses and specialized shops, buy illustrated manuals and scientific guides to deepen your knowledge. When you find an edible plant, dwell on it; look at it, touch it, smell it, try to memorize it well and then taste it, the taste it will have and the sensations you will experience will surely make the type of plant remain etched in your mind. So whenever you meet again on your way you will recognize it immediately even if it is in the middle of another hundred. If you meet some poisonous species, do not spend too much time memorizing them because they do not interest you if they are not edible. If during your journey or during your travels you meet herbalists, botanists, people grown up in contact with herbs or in the wild, indigenous … do not miss the opportunity to socialize with them, you could learn a lot.

Some useful tips:

Many plants, even if edible, could trigger an allergic reaction, which is why it is very important to know which plants you are intolerant (the main test for the diagnosis of allergy is the “prick-test” skin test). If you are allergic, it is always useful to have antihistamines at your fingertips.
Avoid eating old leaves fallen on the ground.
Many solanaceous plants contain solanine (it is toxic) in the green parts such as shoots, flowers, stems, leaves and tubers.
Most of the fabaceae are edible and are found in any region of the globe (bean, pea, broad bean, lupine, chickpea, peanut, soy, lentil).
Although the tomato and potato plants are edible, avoid the green parts as they are toxic and may even cause death. Avoid strictly green potatoes.
The crushed parts of leaves, buds and fruits that smell of almonds must be avoided.
Avoid mature ferns, eat only its shoots. Over 200 types of ferns present in the flora of the hemisphere above the equator are edible by young people.
Most of the fruits are edible raw, but if you find an unknown fruit with too bright colors that are not hazardous.
When in doubt, always avoid the bulbs.
Avoid plants that have umbrella-shaped flowers (this does not apply to carrots and parsley).
The eatable algae can be found in shallow water where they form very dense layers on the rocks or on the surface of the water that floats.
Always boil or roast the tubers that are in the subsoil (but if you do not know them or you are not sure you avoid these too as some may be harmful).
Flowers and ripe berries (except the seeds inside them) of elderberry can be eaten, the rest of the plant contains cyanide, to avoid. With flowers it is possible to make an excellent syrup to quench your thirst.
You can eat the inner bark of a tree that is closer to the wood. You eat raw. Do not eat the outside one.
You can make a good porridge boiling the oats in water.
All types of nuts are edible. They are eaten raw. The acorns are cooked instead.
Roots and rhizomes of edible plants can be eaten. The same applies to the shoots (always boil them).

Survive in the rain forest

0

HOW TO SURVIVE IN THE PLUVIAL FOREST

Rain forests are famous for their rains, and their rainfall averages 2 meters per year.

In the rain forests live a multitude of insects, animals, plants and micro-organisms, about two-thirds of the known animal and plant species on the planet live in these forests; there are so many that today you can still discover new ones. It has been estimated that to identify all the insects of the Amazon jungle, it takes at least 3600 years, this fact is also due to the fact that there are very few people working in this regard. Consider that in a single tree some seventy different ant species have been counted.

Life in the rainforest is limited to a few indigenous communities, although the area is rich in food and water, survival in these areas is practically impossible if you do not have the necessary knowledge and skills.

Even the soldiers who got lost in these areas did not make it to come home alive.

ORIENTATION IN THE FOREST:

Orienting in the forest is very difficult while getting lost is very easy, the dense vegetation makes you lose any sense of distance and size.

The thick blanket of leaves and branches sometimes prevents us from seeing the sky, causing a sense of loss.

To get a better idea of the territory and the direction to be taken, you can climb up to the top of a tree.

For a claustrophobic find yourself in a rain forest is like finding yourself in a nightmare, even a normal person would feel crushed by the sense of oppression and disorientation that the forest infuses.

The march in the jungle is always very slow, it takes a long time to cover even minimum distances.

Depending on how thick the forest is, you can walk even less than a hundred meters per hour.

HOW TO SURVIVE?

The march in the forest is quite difficult, the ground is constantly wet and slimy and the surface on which you walk is formed by decaying leaves and trees as well as mud.

In these conditions, dislocating an ankle or breaking a leg can be very easy.

Also you have to be careful of the snakes, it is very easy to exchange a few branches for one of them. Usually the snakes do not attack the man if they do not feel threatened, but if we march on one while as we march, it will react by biting a leg.

The humidity inside a rain forest is unbearable (in the warmer seasons it can even reach 98%).

Even if the temperature is around 30 degrees, because of the high humidity, you are wet with sweat and in these conditions you dehydrate quickly.

Get used to sudden and abundant rains even several times a day.

In the rainforest it is normal practice to be constantly soaked from head to toe, both for rain and humidity.

 

USEFUL TIPS:

  • Eye! In the forest the dangers also come from above.
  • The most dangerous animals in these areas are scorpions, mosquitoes and snakes, of the latter there are many species, many of which are poisonous.
  • In order not to lose the orientation if you find it, follow a river, it could take you to the sea or to civilization.
  • If you take a walk in the forest it is always advisable to take a machete with you to make your way through the thick vegetation. The machete can also come in handy as a defense and hunting weapon.
  • Never walk barefoot and cover your feet and legs well; because thorns, ants and other small insects could create wounds that would immediately infect in an environment such as this, and adequate protection can protect against bites of spiders and snakes and scorpions.
  • If you follow a river, notice that the sound of the water gets louder and louder, be careful because you might be near a waterfall.
  • If you want to overcome an obstacle (like a waterfall or a slope) you can exploit the lianas, pull them with all your strength until they come off the tree, then use them as ropes, perhaps joining more than one to lengthen the rope.
  • The lianas are very durable and can come in handy for a thousand purposes.

WATER:

If you find a river you have to pay close attention to drinking its water.

There are signs that could make you understand that the water is good: when it flows quickly (ie when it is not stagnant), when it appears clear and clean or when you find animals like plecoptera and small shrimp that swim.

Before swallowing the water, bathe a little ‘tongue to taste it: if it is odorless and tasteless you can drink it.

Where the animals drink, the water is certainly harmless even if there is no safety that it is drinkable.

By chewing on a blade of grass or sucking a wet pebble, you can relieve your thirst for a while.

Water can transmit all sorts of viruses and microbes, and is the first cause of dysentery and disease in the forest, when you venture into these areas it is always ideal to bring a supply of mineral water, purifying tablets or a pot to be able to boil the water.

Tablets or tablets for potable water purification: link.

In these areas, attacks of dysentery can affect you very easily.

Diarrhea dehydrates the body from water and mineral salts, and increases the risk of heatstroke and in a humid and hot environment like the jungle would be a lethal combination.

There are several plants that you can use to rebuild your stomach, most of the medicines on the market are created by exploiting the plants of the rain forests.

 

FOOD:

The jungle does not offer inexperienced people enough food to survive, but looking at the details something is always there.

In the forest you do not have to force yourself to hunt, look for animals or build traps you can feed with all the plants that the flora offers.

You can eat wild fruits fallen from trees, leguminous plants, coconuts, palm sprouts, roots of climbing plants …

The variety of foods that can be found in the jungle are varied: banana, pineapple, fig, mango, peanut, avocado, millet, rice, sugar cane, papaya, various berries, dates, buds of the palms, larvae of insects and termites, wild honey, crickets, eggs of ants, caterpillars (those without hairless), snakes (remove head, skin and intestines before cooking them), lizards, bats, white fishes, eels, crayfish etc …

If you find frogs do not eat them because there are many poisonous and toxic, especially if their skin is colored with too flashy and shiny colors.

Never eat mushrooms, they could be toxic or poisonous, their nutritional intake is so low, that even if you are a mushroom expert it is not worth risking.

If you can build a bow you could use scorpion venom, snakes and frogs to make poisoned arrows.

Plants that contain milky juice are often poisonous.

If you are near a big river you can fish at night using a torch light.

To build a torch, take a solid stick and wrap a palm bark around it with some camphor resin so that it continues to burn.

The fish at night are more docile, they are also attracted by light sources, holding the torch near the surface of the water the fish will approach, take advantage of the moment to hit them with a hardwood, once stunned grab them quickly.

The termites can be eaten, even if they are very small they give a great protein intake, even if they are even more than beef and fish, you have to eat a lot of them to get a decent meal.

THE NIGHT AND THE REFUGE:

The worst moment when you get lost in the jungle is the arrival of the night.

The night in the forest suddenly arrives, that’s why you have to organize a bivouac before it gets dark.

In the equator the hours of darkness and the hours of light are the same.

To build a shelter always choose an elevated area.

It is of primary importance, when possible, to light a fire, better if smoky so as not to become the meal of mosquitoes and other insects.
Mosquito bites, besides being very annoying, can transmit diseases like malaria and dengue fever.

 

Sometimes lighting a fire in the rainforest can be very difficult due to the continuous rains and the difficulty in finding dry wood.
When you light a fire you can build a small roof over it, using the large palm leaves, so that the rain does not turn off immediately.

If you do not have a lighter, a matchstick, a flint or a flintlock, you can use an eyeglass lens or the dial of the watch or a bottle bottom or a piece of glass, or anything that can concentrate the sun’s rays on the bait, provided that the area you are in is not covered by the forest roof.

Or you can light the fire using the famous bow.

For the shelter to avoid the dry river bed, pay attention to the nests of ants and the caves for the possible presence of wild animals.

Do not build the shelter directly on the path but slightly moved, as the night could be beaten by predators.

The first thing to do to organize the bivouac on the ground is to clean the surrounding soil from brushwood, branches and leaves so that it is as uniform as possible, to do so do not use your hands but a stick.

The ideal thing is to make a hammock with lianas and then hook it to two trees.

To shelter from heavy rains you can build a roof over the bed where you will rest, using large palm or banana leaves.

Wherever possible, a raised shelter can be constructed by exploiting the bifurcation of a tree by constructing a platform with reeds and branches.

If you find a termite nest you can burn dry feces over a fire, the smoke produced will be an excellent mosquito repellent.

NAVIGATE A RIVER:

If you find a river wide enough you can build a raft to move faster through the forest.

The wood to build a raft in a forest never fails, you can use barks and lianas to tie the various logs.

If you see mangroves around you while you are sailing in the river, it means that you are leaving the jungle and you are approaching the sea. If the current becomes very strong, immediately leave the raft and continue on foot to the coast, if you let yourself be transported you could be dragged into the open sea.

How to survive in the desert

0

Rules and concepts for survival in a hot desert

 

The temperatures in the desert can reach values that travel from 55 to 60 degrees in the shade, while at the ground level the sand can even reach up to 80 degrees. The heat coming from below, which is perceived when walking in the desert is indescribable.
On a normal day in the desert temperatures are suffocating (around an average of 45 to 50 degrees), with these temperatures death occurs mainly by heat stroke and dehydration.

Both phenomena occur very quickly, that’s why if you find yourself having to survive in the desert the ideal solution is to move as little as possible and not to make efforts, you need to find a place in the shade where to shelter from the scorching sun and wait for help .

Example of refuge in the desert with air gap:

If you are on board a disaster vehicle it is advisable to wait inside the cabin, so that there are more chances to be glimpsed and survive.
But if you are not sure that the rescuers arrive, it is advisable to start the march only walking in the early morning (from 4 to 10) and late afternoon and evening (from 17 to 22), when the temperatures are less hot.

Hardly in the desert you can find waterways, but if you see a dry river following it you could reach a real river, and finally the civilization.

If you are in a rocky desert you can use the shadow projected by a rock formation.

For example you can find some shade and relief in the bottom of a canyon and if you have a little ‘luck even water, in fact at the foot of a canyon sometimes you can spot some stream that brings water to some small river.

VERY IMPORTANT:

Always cover the head and the nape to keep the brain shiny and avoid insolations.

If you do not own a hat, use any cloth or piece of cloth (even torn from your clothes), preferably light or white (dark colors, especially black, capture the sun’s rays and heat up earlier).

To avoid burns it is necessary to cover the whole body without leaving areas of skin exposed to sunlight.
If the heat on your head becomes unbearable you can urinate on the headgear.

It is useful to stop often to remove the sand of your shoes, especially if it is hot or if there are small stones, so as not to ruin your only means of movement: your feet!

ORIENTATION

The lack of any reference point such as trees, buildings, light poles, etc. .. makes any measure of distance illusory. In fact, as when you are at sea, you must multiply distances at least 3 times.

In a sandy dune desert, the dunes constantly change due to the wind, so you should never take them as a totally reliable reference point.

When you find green areas in the desert you can certainly find water and food, and many times even human settlements.

There are some Cactuses in America that can be relied upon for orientation.

The so-called “compass cactus” always tend to grow oriented / bent towards the south-west.

USEFUL INFORMATION

  • The internal temperature of the human body is about 37 degrees, when it reaches 40.5 degrees you go to the so-called heat stroke, the brain goes into confusion and the body is shaken by convulsions, in these conditions you can risk the coma .
    If when urinating is very dark, it means that the body is dehydrating.
  • When you find areas of shade to protect yourself from the sun it is always advisable to check that there are no snakes or other poisonous animals (even during the hottest hours they seek shade relief).
  • To check if there are any animals just throw some pebbles in the affected area and see if there are any movements. For example, snakes hate strong vibrations and it is not enough to put them on the run.
  • Dawn is the ideal time to move around in the desert (the cold of the night will also have cooled the ground).
  • When you wake up it is always advisable to check footwear, clothing and equipment as the scorpions adore to hide in shady and cool places.
  • If a SCORPIO walks on you, there is only one way to grab it, and it is of the tail keeping the sting under control, but you must be very fast; the end of the tail of the scorpion is composed of very small hairs that detect even the slightest movement in the surrounding air. However the sting is his only weapon, once neutralized the arthropod becomes harmless. 

THE NIGHT IN THE DESERT

The nights in the desert are very cold because of the very strong temperature range, which distinguishes these areas.

Nighttime temperatures can even reach close to zero, so it is necessary to try to light a fire, to be able to heat and keep away any predators, before it gets dark.

The temperature difference between day and night can even be 40 degrees.

At night it is necessary to wear other clothes and cover as much as possible.

If the internal temperature lowers below 35 degrees, hypothermia risks.

FIRE
In any survival situation, lighting a fire has always been a huge psychological help.

To light a fire you can use weeds, twigs and dry plants.

If you do not have a lighter, a matchstick, a flint or a flintlock, you can use an eyeglass lens or the dial of the watch or a bottle bottom or a piece of glass, or anything that can concentrate the sun’s rays sull’esca. If you find wood and you have a piece of string you can improvise a bow. (See how to light a fire)

THE WATER

At temperatures around 40 and 50 degrees, the human body loses about 1 liter of water per hour through the perspiration even without great effort.

Plants need water to survive, which is why even the slightest signs of vegetation can make you understand that water could be near.

If you notice a tamericio (tamerix) plant in an Asian desert, you might find it useful to know that this plant needs a lot of water to survive, so nearby you could find an aquifer or water. The same applies to the cypress.

Be careful if you find large pools of water at the base of canyons and rock formations, they could be contaminated, as they are stagnant (perhaps they have accumulated during the last rains and stagnated there for months). You can check with a stick and see if there are any dead animals in the pool of water, if you find it will be confirmed the theory that the water is decomposed and is not drinkable.

Drinking contaminated water could cause you dysentery, if not worse, and a gastrointestinal problem like that in the desert would kill you safe, as it would lead to immediate dehydration.

Remember that bees and mosquitoes always live near water sources, if you encounter some, follow their direction.

When you are dehydrated you have to drink slowly and in small sips because you ingest too much water and very quickly it may cause vomiting, dehydrating you further.

If you fortunately find a stream or a lake, pay close attention to the quicksand; before diving then check with a stick.

When you fall into the quicksand the more you move and you shake the more you sink, if you try to pull out the legs pushing upwards the effect you will get will be pulled more and more towards the bottom.

The only way to get out of it is to stop struggling and try to lift the body slowly upwards, then you have to try to reach the surface by changing the inclination of the body, pull up the arms and then the legs trying to reach the position horizontal and finally drag slowly crawling parallel to the surface to the shore.

FOOD

The food in the desert is very scarce, from time to time you can see animals such as rabbits, lizards, rats, prairie dogs, snakes and it is easier to find them near sources of water, even small or hidden in the rare bushes.

Some plants are edible and you can consume fruits, seeds, flowers, shoots and bark.

In a rocky desert, in the cracks of the highest rocks you can find nests of birds and then eggs.

Finding shells of eggs, defecations of birds and feathers indicate the presence and also the position of a nest.

If you find a controlled egg is not pierced and then eat it, you can also ingest the egg shell that is very rich in calcium. It is however advisable to cook it and never eat it raw as you could take salmonella.

Cook an egg in the desert is very simple, the temperature of the soil can reach even 80 degrees, if you find a rock or a large stone, it will certainly be hot, then hatch the egg over it will cook in a moment.

Twilight is the perfect time to go hunting. Snakes are nocturnal predators and at sunset they leave their fresh shelters to look for some prey.

To capture a snake you can hit it on the head with stones to stun it, when it appears disoriented you approach lightning and with a stick you hold it just below the head, then with a large stone the skull shattered.

How to Survive in the City After a Disaster

0

Events that can lead to a sudden survival situation

  • Natural disasters: hurricanes, tornadoes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves, floods, landslides, avalanches, snowstorms, heavy storms, floods, mudslides, climatic changes, glaciation, desertification, fires, astronomical impact, solar storm.
  • Incidents: fires, environmental disasters, chemical spills, release of radioactive agents or nuclear materials, water or atmospheric pollution with toxic substances.
  • Conflicts: civil war, riots, violent demonstrations, regional war, world war, nuclear, chemical, biological or radiological wars carried out with weapons of mass destruction, terrorism.
  • General collapse of society caused by the sudden absence or scarcity of primary resources such as water, food, electricity, fuel, methane.
  • Financial, political, social or economic crisis.
  • Famines, pandemics and epidemics.
  • Bio-chemical scenario: emergency due to the sudden spread of deadly diseases, biological agents and nerve gases. Examples: swine flu, escherichia coli, botulism, dengue fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or CJD, mad cow disease, SARS, rabies, Hantavirus, anthrax, pest, cholera, HIV, ebola, Marburg virus, Lassa fever, Sarin or GB and VX.

Personal requirements that can help us deal with an emergency situation

  • Rapid decision-making capacity
  • Being able to improvise
  • Have a total control of the body and the mind
  • Being able to understand and evaluate people
  • Anticipate the danger and be able to calculate the risks
  • Self-sufficiency and independence
  • Acknowledge your limits
  • Be tenacious never to break down

The priorities in case an emergency situation is triggered are

safeguard our safety and our safety
fulfill primary needs (water – food – shelter).
Everything else loses importance: home, money, car, objects accumulated in the course of life.

SURVIVAL TECHNIQUES

Stay in your home or escape?
We may be in a position to have to choose whether to stay at home and barricade ourselves or flee. One fact to keep in mind before taking any decision is the duration of the disaster:

Short Catastrophe: ex. a whirlwind.
Long-term catastrophe: ex. famine, third world war.
Catastrophe with indefinite time: es. climate change, environmental changes.
Depending on the duration of the disaster we will have to organize ourselves in different ways.
If the cycle is long lasting we should take into account that the food stocks that we have aside will be exhausted, an escape to the suburbs and the countryside would be inevitable in order to exploit nature to survive.

A city devoid of goods and services becomes a useless pile of iron and cement hostile to survival. We should abandon the urban environment to find open spaces and seek land to grow fruit and vegetables, and to raise animals. From time to time, however, we could return to the city to look for tools, artifacts and rummage in the garbage to find tools that could come in handy.

In case of environmental disasters due to pollution of chemical products or explosions of bombs or nuclear power plants, immediately stop the consumption of meat, fish, milk, vegetables and fresh fruit from the areas concerned. Just feed on local food and products for yourself. If you are in the disaster area, leave the area immediately by car (neatly without creating chaos and without panicking). Listen to the radio and use the means of communication to stay up-to-date on the state of the disaster and strictly follow the instructions of the civil protection, law enforcement, military, or rescue teams.

If, however, a nuclear explosion has occurred, do not run away, but find shelter and barricade to avoid radioactive fallout (fall-out). Improvised crash shelters can be underground subterranean pipelines, highway and railway tunnels of a certain length, caves, mines, sewers, cellars, taverns, underground shelters or underground car parks, opting for anywhere below one meter and seventy from the level of surface.

In the event of a NUCLEAR INCIDENT OR WAR, follow this specific guide: How to survive a Nuclear Attack.

In case of biological weapons release avoid contaminated areas, crowded areas, or meeting people. Pay attention to the foods you eat (cook them well), purify the water (boil it), wear special gas masks (GP-5). The ways by which we could be infected are:

  • Air (inhalation via air diffusion)
  • Water (contamination of the water system)
  • Food (food contamination)
  • Contagion between people or animals (via viruses)

Depending on the bacterium, released virus or toxin could be very difficult to escape from the infection even by wearing protections, boiling water, etc … The only way is to escape from the area at risk.

 

Before escaping from the city (if time permits, otherwise we flee as soon as possible without wasting time saving material goods) we try to do the following things:

  • We put in an envelope: cash (all that we can, we avoid the little coins of little value), identity documents, deeds of property, precious goods (gold, diamonds), other important documents (eg vaccination booklet, health card, account current, passport, sheet with phone number of family members and blood group), keys of our properties, and other small assets that we consider valuable (eg family photo).
  • If we have a survival manual, let’s take it (if we also have a first aid manual on plants.
  • Avoid wasting time trying to withdraw cash at ATMs, at the bank or at the post office (most likely in an emergency situation, many people would gather to save their savings and obviously the banks would not have the necessary cash to pay everyone).
  • We bring with us means of communication such as radio, walkie talkie or radio transmitter, CB, notebook, telephone, any batteries and chargers (better if manual if we do not find electricity).
  • We stock up on sugar, salt, flour, oil and other long-life foods (canned, salted, marinated, syrup, in oil, honey).
  • We consume the short-term foods sooner or later.
  • We bring with us some seeds bought previously (make a selection of seeds in order to have a harvest for all seasons). Radicchi, celery, chicory, potatoes grow all year round, especially for these (see table below).
  • We take a knife, a saucepan, a capable container, a metal cup, a can opener, a bottle opener, and a few meters of rope.
  • We bring with us all the equipment that could be useful to light a fire (lighters, matches, lighters …).
  • Complete medical kit and any life-saving medicines (see final part of first aid).
    Notepads and pencil (we could keep a diary annotating useful information).
  • Clothing: a pair of comfortable trousers, jeans (excellent because very resistant), sweaters (both long-sleeved and short-sleeved, preferably cotton), sweaters, jackets, raincoat, ponchos, underpants, socks, scarves, gloves ( even a pair of work if we have them), headgear, light and heavy shoes and even a pair of rubber boots. Bring the best garments in cotton and easily washable. Do not wear too many clothes, but at least two, maximum three for each type of garment so as to alternate and have the spare when you wash the dirty ones.

In the video: emergency kit for 3 days (bug-out bag)

 

Other objects that could serve:

  • Torches (low consumption or dynamo), candles, lamps (kerosene), paraffin oil for lighting,
  • Some cutlery, a plate and a cup (better if made of steel)
  • Waterproof tarpaulins (we could take one of those used to cover cars in winter),
  • Bags, plastic bags (better if a roll of black bags, those used for garbage),
  • Blankets,
  • Sleeping bag,
  • Aluminum paper,
  • Solid soap, hand and face cleanser, towels,
  • Toothbrush, nail clippers,
  • Razor blade,
  • Portable gas or better multi-fuel cooker
  • Agricultural tools,
  • A toolbox,
  • Swiss Army knife,
  • Map of the place,
  • Insulating tape (US model),
  • Sewing set,
  • Safety pins or some staples,
  • Bicycle,
  • Firearms (if we have them, it is important not to keep them in plain sight if there are conflicts in progress could be misinterpreted),
  • Handkerchiefs and toilet paper,
  • If we also have them: water purifier, Geiger counter and potassium iodide in tablets (in case of nuclear disaster),
  • Wristwatch,
  • Additional machine battery in case we have defects or breaks, (via the cigarette lighter of the machine (12v) we could charge the phone, batteries, GPS, turn on the fire, use other electrical objects, illuminate, warm up or listen to the radio, we could use our car as a temporary shelter).
  • More … See complete survival kit.

Save fuel

Use your vehicle to make vital journeys necessary, avoid consuming petrol or diesel fuel unnecessarily (you may no longer have the opportunity to refuel).

Put all the items listed in a suitcase (even the one you use for the holidays, if the wheels are even better) or try to pack everything in one or two bags. The things you will have to use often or immediately put them in a backpack, as well as the envelope with the money and documents. Load the suitcase and the backpack into the bonnet and leave the city. Avoid bringing unnecessary items to survival or too heavy (such as televisions, PCs, …) or expensive (paintings, clothes …) even if there is space in the car not overloaded the car, you would consume a lot more fuel. Before leaving, tighten your home (doors, windows, shutters), close water, gas and switch off the power supply.

 

 

Which destination to choose?

It is better to get as far as possible from big cities, industrial centers, military bases, prefer small villages, isolated areas, mountain towns, sea or countryside, small islands or even better to create a refuge in the woods. If it is possible to move in small communities to increase the chances of survival (the knowledge, experience and physical strength of more people would benefit everyone). Help each other, cooperate and share tasks.

Once you arrive at your destination, we put the car in a safe place and use a BICYCLE for travel, we do not consume the fuel supply.

7 tips for not suffering the heat

0

We are in the middle of summer, and like every year the various media launching shock titles like “the hottest summer of the last 100 years!” Media aside, the question we are going to answer in this article is: extreme heat, what to do? Here are some tips for not suffering the heat, therefore, like “preventing the heat” and what to do during the “post.

What can we do before, to suffer less heat and not risk taking a sunstroke or collapsing?

 

# 1 Avoiding demanding physical activities during the hottest hours (11.30am – 4.30pm)
This advice, even if chopped and withdrawn, remains a MUST, especially for children, the elderly or people with diseases;

# 2 Keep hydrated
hydration is essential, the daily requirement is 2 liters of water. However, keep in mind that sweating fluids must be replenished every hour better with mineral salts (magnesium, potassium and electrolytes). Therefore, take half a liter of water before leaving home, even if you are not thirsty. Alternatively, eat a lot of fruit so you will take the minerals you need and at the same time keep your body hydrated;

# 3 Wear light clothes
the tight-fitting clothes or synthetic, especially if dark, will make you live a real hell! Try to prefer a cotton or linen dress, quite large and light (the top would be white). Needless to say it but … try to avoid jeans, long pants and long sleeve dresses, at least for your own good;

# 4 Comfortable and breathable shoes
although it may seem a minor choice, you must remember that at extreme temperatures the blood is pushed towards the extremities to dissipate the heat and cool the blood (the exact opposite for the cold as pushed towards the center to prevent it from cooling too much) , so closed or high shoes will slow down this function;

# 5 Wear hat and glasses
during the summer the sun is much brighter and UV rays can create serious damage to the eyes, which are accentuated by reflecting or white surfaces. Moreover, what they know in a few, even the eyes have their temperature and pressure. The glasses will help keep them under the right conditions.
As far as the hat is concerned, avoid basketball shoes or those terrifying pseudo-basket flat-brimmed hats. You prefer a “boonie hat” in cotton with a circular brim (like a fisherman’s hat), so it will protect you from the sun, ears and neck.

# 6 Use sunscreen
It seems stupid, but even in the city you get hot, even in the car! Choose the protection that best suits your skin type and if you are not on holiday maybe avoid the coconut …

# 7 Water bottle always with you
it’s a bit connected to point # 2. Bring a flask with you, will allow you to stay hydrated. There are foldable bottles with very little space, or a backpack camelbak. You never know how long you will be outside and if you have water available, so always take it with you and preferably also with sachets of mineral salts.

How to suffer less heat when we are out?

– Avoid walking in the sun or making direct light efforts only;
– Avoid stopping or stopping in the sun and under direct light;
– Conditioners are not always good: sometimes you risk congestion. If you need to enter a mall or shop with air conditioning at 1000, stop just a few seconds between the door and the inside of the store to better withstand the overhang. The same rule applies for leaving the shop;
– Fans are preferable to the air conditioner: however, they “dry” the sweat that our body needs to cool down, which will make you sweat more. In this case use a handkerchief or wet ascigamane to help this function by dabbing the forehead and especially behind the ear lobes.
– If you have to do something, do it VERY SLOWLY, the slower movements will cause you to sweat less and get tired less.
– Watch out for pressure, some people with heat are suffering from low pressure and others still high. In case of low pressure, minerals are needed. To get it up, take liquorice or salt! For God, avoid alcohol!
In the case of high blood pressure, however, the one that works best is grapefruit juice (better if fresh);
– Do not drink alcohol and especially NEVER frozen drinks. This will make you sweat even more and you will only risk congestion, as opposed to what you may think hot drinks like tea will make you feel less hot, hot mint tea, try it!
– In case of intense heat and extreme, if you have any way, moisten your clothes but not the hair or the body: wetting the body “laverete” away the sweat that is much more effective than water in cooling the body.
– In the car do not put the air conditioning shot at 1000, but try to maintain a temperature between 22/24 degrees, otherwise once you get off the car the “blow” of heat felt will be very strong and in some cases you could risk the collapse;
– Last recommendation, to avoid the return to the car to finish roasting is to cover the windshield and the windows with sheets or newspaper to keep the cabin cooler.
– Avoid walking in the sun or making direct light efforts only;
– Avoid stopping or stopping in the sun and under direct light;
– Conditioners are not always good: sometimes you risk congestion. If you need to enter a mall or shop with air conditioning at 1000, stop just a few seconds between the door and the inside of the store to better withstand the overhang. The same rule applies for leaving the shop;
– Fans are preferable to the air conditioner: however, they “dry” the sweat that our body needs to cool down, which will make you sweat more. In this case use a handkerchief or wet ascigamane to help this function by dabbing the forehead and especially behind the ear lobes.
– If you have to do something, do it VERY SLOWLY, the slower movements will cause you to sweat less and get tired less.
– Watch out for pressure, some people with heat are suffering from low pressure and others still high. In case of low pressure, minerals are needed. To get it up, take liquorice or salt! For God, avoid alcohol!
In the case of high blood pressure, however, the one that works best is grapefruit juice (better if fresh);
– Do not drink alcohol and especially NEVER frozen drinks. This will make you sweat even more and you will only risk congestion, as opposed to what you may think hot drinks like tea will make you feel less hot, hot mint tea, try it!
– In case of intense heat and extreme, if you have any way, moisten your clothes but not the hair or the body: wetting the body “laverete” away the sweat that is much more effective than water in cooling the body.
– In the car do not put the air conditioning shot at 1000, but try to maintain a temperature between 22/24 degrees, otherwise once you get off the car the “blow” of heat felt will be very strong and in some cases you could risk the collapse;
– Last recommendation, to avoid the return to the car to finish roasting is to cover the windshield and the windows with sheets or newspaper to keep the cabin cooler.