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Bioterrorism: 80 thousand at risk for super-resistant bacteria

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This is the title of today’s article ANSA.it which reports a dossier according to which, more than 80 thousand people would be at risk of infection by super-resistant bacteria. The article is just yet another exploit of a hypothetical bio-terrorist act (or viral outbreak), but are you sure you know everything?

Pandemic risk?
Let’s start by saying that in the world there are hundreds and hundreds of P4 level laboratories in the world, of which only 135 in the United States, but now the question is legitimate and it is:

 

What is a P4 level laboratory?
The P1 / P2 / P3 / P4 range indicates the hazard level of the laboratory in which 4 is considered the maximum even if there are rumors of a P5 level (Read more: Biosafety level).
In this kind of laboratory biological and chemical research and experimentation is carried out also on possible and “hypothetical” bacteriological weapons, with this however do not point the finger!
Some P4 level laboratories use a transparency protocol, which means that everything inside is superintended or otherwise accessible to third parties (usually the state or pharmaceutical companies).
Many pharmaceutical companies need P4 level laboratories by force of things, for testing drugs and vaccines, so they are not all terrorists!

The question that will come to mind is: yes, but there are hundreds and hundreds of pharmaceutical companies with their respective laboratories? The answer is no: there are also private and defense laboratories. Beyond this we can not know and is clearly confidential, so pull your conclusions.

Now let’s analyze the difference between bioterrorism and outbreak; the definitions can be considered as a consequence of the other but they are different.

Bioterrorism vs Outbreak
Bioterrorism is considered an intentional act with the sole purpose of reaping as many victims and making as much audience as possible, for religious reasons, policies, etc.

The outbreak, however, is a “leak” or leak of substance. This substance can be a virus or live bacteria from the laboratory. It is usually understood as a failure of the air recycling system, filtering or a laboratory accident where containment has failed. If then it is by human hand, we can not know, and clearly becomes bioterrorism).

The question that will whisk you in mind from the beginning of the article is: but what is my survival index in this case?

Survival in the event of a bioterrorist attack or outbreak
To be honest low, really low: if you live in big cities and you are one of those who think “the government will take care of it” your survival index is negative. Unfortunately, it is not known when and how an infection or an outbreak will occur. The only weapon available is prevention and knowing your enemy …

Start from this fact: bacteria and viruses have already won the battle. Every year, even the only flu becomes more resistant to drugs and this because it evolves due to the excessive use of antibiotics and drugs. The human being uses more and more medicines and genetically transmits immune weaknesses to his heirs in hundreds of years. The body of the modern human being is no longer able to fight many diseases alone.

That said, do not be demotivative, indeed. You must know your enemy and especially the vectors of contagion.
If you know how to avoid infection and take any precautions you are 80% successful!

Avoid the contagion carriers
Every day we are exposed to millions of different viruses and bacteria but our body in 90% of cases can eradicate it and avoid infection. So say thank you to your immune system and do not weaken it with intensive use of medicines. Avoid medications if not absolutely necessary. Obviously the immune system is affected by bad habits such as smoking, drinking or using drugs.

By referring to the article at the top we talk about at least 3 types of pathogens and specifically:

– Escherichia Coli
– Klebsiella Pneumoniae
– Aureus Staffilococco

Now that you know the tools to prevent infection, study how it is contracted (via air, via contact, via fluids …) and put into practice your way of prevention. We summarize the contagion vectors below:

– Airplane (sneezing, air and ventilation filters, crowded places, …): use mask, respirator or gas mask. In order not to look like complete idiots in public, a single-use filtering mask will suffice to give you a good 50% protection. At 100% it would be good to also protect the eyes with full-face glasses, but in public it is not advisable;
– Contact (touching infected objects, ingesting infected substances, …): in extreme cases do not consume fresh food, drink water or substances whose origin is unknown. Wear disposable gloves or under-boots, wash your hands often and use skin-based detergents based on surfactants. I repeat that these are extreme cases. Basic good hygiene and good sense will help you avoid various infections;
– Fluids (blood, mucus, saliva, …): in these cases I think there is little to say, the same rule applies above.

Ultimately for not going long:

1) remember that the battle with pathogens you have already lost, but not the war!
2) prevention and knowledge is your one and only weapon;
3) be prepared and reactive;
4) I will never get tired of saying it, inform yourself and inform yourself, check often the highlights from the WHO website always look for new news and try to be always 3 steps forward!

Anker folding solar panel

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Nowadays we are invaded by a myriad of portable electronic devices, some, often of dubious usefulness; others, on the other hand, can make the difference in emergency situations.
Whether it’s a smartphone, a GPS, a radio or a tablet, they all have a common denominator and in a sense an Achilles’ heel: battery life.
To make up for this problem, today we review a really interesting product: Anker Folding Solar Panel. The manufacturer, Anker, has seen us along and designed a 14w folding solar panel. Whether for a campsite, an excursion in the mountains or just to have a source of electricity in case of emergency, this little device knows how to assert itself.

The folding solar panel
The Anker Folding Solar Panel opens through a flip-off closure and is made up of 4 mono-crystalline solar panels, a pocket containing 2 USB sockets and an extra space for storing power cables or devices.
Taking advantage of the 4 eyelets arranged at the sides can be attached to the backpack, the tent or a tree.
Equipped with “PowerIQ” technology, USB ports can read any type of device that is Apple, Android, etc.
Designed to power 2 devices, through 2 USB ports, it manages to deliver up to 2A / 5V which makes it suitable for loading GPS, MP3, tablet and smartphone navigators.
The panels are covered with PET plastic, hardened and melted in a polyester supporting structure which gives it extreme solidity and strength both at impact and atmospheric conditions.

PRO
– Portability: 27x17x4 cm for 770g of weight;
– Excellent value for money;
– Charge also with cloudy sky;
– Reasonable charging times, 2h from 0 to 75%;
– Solid and recyclable materials;
– Anchor eyelets;
– Double USB port with “PowerIQ” system;
– Infinite energy at no cost;

CONS
– It is not possible to recharge laptops, notebooks or other devices that require more resources;
– At the first use, the smell is not the best. It is not very important for our purposes, but it is still worth pointing out.

 

Some practical uses
Suitable for multi-day trips, where a powerbank may not be enough, we will have our power outlet always within reach of a backpack.

Personally I always associate the solar panel with a 12800mAh PowerBank Anker. Then I connect the powerbank to the output of the solar panel and from the output of the powerbank the smartphone thus avoiding the “overhangs” due to the momentary lack of sun and to have a continuous current output regardless of the weather conditions.

In addition, I recommend it to anyone who wants to have an additional emergency power source.
In case of SHTF it can load any type of equipment up to 2A. If connected to a USB charger you can also recharge flashlights and devices compatible with AA – AAA – 18650 batteries.

Anker folding solar panels, due to their small size, make them an excellent item to insert in our B.O.B. / B.O.V. and they can be truly providential in a potential emergency, of course … weather permitting!

Basic rules to cake with plants

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THE RULES FOR DISTINGUISHING A PLANT EDIBLE FROM AN UNEVIEBLE

Vegetables are much simpler to find than meat, the human body can survive easily by eating only vegetables for long periods.

There are innumerable plants in the world, and it is practically impossible to know them and distinguish them all, even for the most experienced.

There are places like deserts, both hot and cold, where the flora is reduced to a few species of plants, in this case it is easy to study and store them all or at least most of them; but in other areas, such as the rainforest, it quickly becomes confusing even if it is local. Consider that the rainforest represents two thirds of the world of plants and animals on the planet. The flora is so immense and varied that thousands of plant species are still unknown.

Plants in a survival situation are a very important part: trunks, branches, leaves … can offer shelter, wood for the fire, material for the construction of containers for water and food, tools, cordage, clothes, also from plants we can create medicines (see natural herbal remedies and cure with natural medicine), we can feed ourselves, quench our thirst and even the poison can be useful (we can poison the tip of an arrow to hit a dangerous animal).

That’s why we must learn to know trees and plants to know how to exploit them to our advantage. For example, we can begin to approach this vast world by learning to know the flora present in our region and then expand to the national territory.

Before embarking on an expedition to a different country or continent it is always better to inquire about the type of fauna and flora that you will encounter.

Unfortunately it is difficult to approach this world without having experience in the field even with an illustrated handbook you can never be sure one hundred percent, especially for the most ambiguous species, the photographs of the books are sometimes not so clear and not they illustrate a plant in all its evolutionary stages (very often only the image of the flower is found in books) and even the textual part is sometimes unable to fully describe the sensations that are felt in front of a type of plant such as for example the perfume, the taste, the perception to the touch, the sound that emit if trampled.

Think of the vastness of plants present in the tropics, many of which not even known, there would be an enormous risk of eating them. Hence the rule that prevails above all: eat only what you know.

Some basic rules:

  • If you are not sure of the edibility of a plant avoid it a priori, it is better to suffer hunger pangs than to eat and then get sick.
  • Cooking is very important as it eliminates germs.
  • Never eat mushrooms, there are many poisonous species and it is not worth risking because their protein intake is very low. Cooking or boiling does not eliminate toxic and poisonous substances from fungi. Do not risk there are no antidotes for poisonous mushrooms.
  • Do not eat food with mold.
  • Do not swallow the plants that contain whitish and dense liquid – milky sap (they can be poisonous), or plants that are very bitter and disgusting or that have a showy and shiny color.
  • Cereals are edible (Corn, Wheat, Rice, Millet, Barley, Sorghum, Oats, Rye, Triticale, Buckwheat, Fonio and Quinoa). Do not eat those that have blackish growths instead of seeds.
  • Do not eat the plants with colored sap, which have the fruits divided into 5 segments, herbs with hairs on stems and leaves.
  • If a part of a plant is edible this does not apply to all its other parts.
  • Do not taste the plants you do not know, but if you want to try it, try them in small quantities. Follow this procedure: put them in your mouth but do not swallow them and if chewing you do not feel particular bad tastes like tingling, burning, bitter taste, acid or soapy try to eat a small dose. If after 6 or 8 hours there are no reactions such as vomiting, stomach pain or diarrhea, try increasing the dose and wait another 6 hours and if even in high doses no side effects may be considered harmless.
  • If you notice that you have ingested toxic food, immediately induce vomiting (by inserting one or more fingers to the bottom of the throat), drink salt water and milk.
    Plants that cause skin irritation should not be eaten (rub the lymph on the inside of the forearm, if it is irritated or swollen, avoid it).

How to learn about plants:

Take a ride through the woods with experts in the field, attend a survival course, compare yourself with the farmers, visit the botanical gardens, greenhouses and specialized shops, buy illustrated manuals and scientific guides to deepen your knowledge. When you find an edible plant, dwell on it; look at it, touch it, smell it, try to memorize it well and then taste it, the taste it will have and the sensations you will experience will surely make the type of plant remain etched in your mind. So whenever you meet again on your way you will recognize it immediately even if it is in the middle of another hundred. If you meet some poisonous species, do not spend too much time memorizing them because they do not interest you if they are not edible. If during your journey or during your travels you meet herbalists, botanists, people grown up in contact with herbs or in the wild, indigenous … do not miss the opportunity to socialize with them, you could learn a lot.

Some useful tips:

Many plants, even if edible, could trigger an allergic reaction, which is why it is very important to know which plants you are intolerant (the main test for the diagnosis of allergy is the “prick-test” skin test). If you are allergic, it is always useful to have antihistamines at your fingertips.
Avoid eating old leaves fallen on the ground.
Many solanaceous plants contain solanine (it is toxic) in the green parts such as shoots, flowers, stems, leaves and tubers.
Most of the fabaceae are edible and are found in any region of the globe (bean, pea, broad bean, lupine, chickpea, peanut, soy, lentil).
Although the tomato and potato plants are edible, avoid the green parts as they are toxic and may even cause death. Avoid strictly green potatoes.
The crushed parts of leaves, buds and fruits that smell of almonds must be avoided.
Avoid mature ferns, eat only its shoots. Over 200 types of ferns present in the flora of the hemisphere above the equator are edible by young people.
Most of the fruits are edible raw, but if you find an unknown fruit with too bright colors that are not hazardous.
When in doubt, always avoid the bulbs.
Avoid plants that have umbrella-shaped flowers (this does not apply to carrots and parsley).
The eatable algae can be found in shallow water where they form very dense layers on the rocks or on the surface of the water that floats.
Always boil or roast the tubers that are in the subsoil (but if you do not know them or you are not sure you avoid these too as some may be harmful).
Flowers and ripe berries (except the seeds inside them) of elderberry can be eaten, the rest of the plant contains cyanide, to avoid. With flowers it is possible to make an excellent syrup to quench your thirst.
You can eat the inner bark of a tree that is closer to the wood. You eat raw. Do not eat the outside one.
You can make a good porridge boiling the oats in water.
All types of nuts are edible. They are eaten raw. The acorns are cooked instead.
Roots and rhizomes of edible plants can be eaten. The same applies to the shoots (always boil them).

Survive in the rain forest

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HOW TO SURVIVE IN THE PLUVIAL FOREST

Rain forests are famous for their rains, and their rainfall averages 2 meters per year.

In the rain forests live a multitude of insects, animals, plants and micro-organisms, about two-thirds of the known animal and plant species on the planet live in these forests; there are so many that today you can still discover new ones. It has been estimated that to identify all the insects of the Amazon jungle, it takes at least 3600 years, this fact is also due to the fact that there are very few people working in this regard. Consider that in a single tree some seventy different ant species have been counted.

Life in the rainforest is limited to a few indigenous communities, although the area is rich in food and water, survival in these areas is practically impossible if you do not have the necessary knowledge and skills.

Even the soldiers who got lost in these areas did not make it to come home alive.

ORIENTATION IN THE FOREST:

Orienting in the forest is very difficult while getting lost is very easy, the dense vegetation makes you lose any sense of distance and size.

The thick blanket of leaves and branches sometimes prevents us from seeing the sky, causing a sense of loss.

To get a better idea of the territory and the direction to be taken, you can climb up to the top of a tree.

For a claustrophobic find yourself in a rain forest is like finding yourself in a nightmare, even a normal person would feel crushed by the sense of oppression and disorientation that the forest infuses.

The march in the jungle is always very slow, it takes a long time to cover even minimum distances.

Depending on how thick the forest is, you can walk even less than a hundred meters per hour.

HOW TO SURVIVE?

The march in the forest is quite difficult, the ground is constantly wet and slimy and the surface on which you walk is formed by decaying leaves and trees as well as mud.

In these conditions, dislocating an ankle or breaking a leg can be very easy.

Also you have to be careful of the snakes, it is very easy to exchange a few branches for one of them. Usually the snakes do not attack the man if they do not feel threatened, but if we march on one while as we march, it will react by biting a leg.

The humidity inside a rain forest is unbearable (in the warmer seasons it can even reach 98%).

Even if the temperature is around 30 degrees, because of the high humidity, you are wet with sweat and in these conditions you dehydrate quickly.

Get used to sudden and abundant rains even several times a day.

In the rainforest it is normal practice to be constantly soaked from head to toe, both for rain and humidity.

 

USEFUL TIPS:

  • Eye! In the forest the dangers also come from above.
  • The most dangerous animals in these areas are scorpions, mosquitoes and snakes, of the latter there are many species, many of which are poisonous.
  • In order not to lose the orientation if you find it, follow a river, it could take you to the sea or to civilization.
  • If you take a walk in the forest it is always advisable to take a machete with you to make your way through the thick vegetation. The machete can also come in handy as a defense and hunting weapon.
  • Never walk barefoot and cover your feet and legs well; because thorns, ants and other small insects could create wounds that would immediately infect in an environment such as this, and adequate protection can protect against bites of spiders and snakes and scorpions.
  • If you follow a river, notice that the sound of the water gets louder and louder, be careful because you might be near a waterfall.
  • If you want to overcome an obstacle (like a waterfall or a slope) you can exploit the lianas, pull them with all your strength until they come off the tree, then use them as ropes, perhaps joining more than one to lengthen the rope.
  • The lianas are very durable and can come in handy for a thousand purposes.

WATER:

If you find a river you have to pay close attention to drinking its water.

There are signs that could make you understand that the water is good: when it flows quickly (ie when it is not stagnant), when it appears clear and clean or when you find animals like plecoptera and small shrimp that swim.

Before swallowing the water, bathe a little ‘tongue to taste it: if it is odorless and tasteless you can drink it.

Where the animals drink, the water is certainly harmless even if there is no safety that it is drinkable.

By chewing on a blade of grass or sucking a wet pebble, you can relieve your thirst for a while.

Water can transmit all sorts of viruses and microbes, and is the first cause of dysentery and disease in the forest, when you venture into these areas it is always ideal to bring a supply of mineral water, purifying tablets or a pot to be able to boil the water.

Tablets or tablets for potable water purification: link.

In these areas, attacks of dysentery can affect you very easily.

Diarrhea dehydrates the body from water and mineral salts, and increases the risk of heatstroke and in a humid and hot environment like the jungle would be a lethal combination.

There are several plants that you can use to rebuild your stomach, most of the medicines on the market are created by exploiting the plants of the rain forests.

 

FOOD:

The jungle does not offer inexperienced people enough food to survive, but looking at the details something is always there.

In the forest you do not have to force yourself to hunt, look for animals or build traps you can feed with all the plants that the flora offers.

You can eat wild fruits fallen from trees, leguminous plants, coconuts, palm sprouts, roots of climbing plants …

The variety of foods that can be found in the jungle are varied: banana, pineapple, fig, mango, peanut, avocado, millet, rice, sugar cane, papaya, various berries, dates, buds of the palms, larvae of insects and termites, wild honey, crickets, eggs of ants, caterpillars (those without hairless), snakes (remove head, skin and intestines before cooking them), lizards, bats, white fishes, eels, crayfish etc …

If you find frogs do not eat them because there are many poisonous and toxic, especially if their skin is colored with too flashy and shiny colors.

Never eat mushrooms, they could be toxic or poisonous, their nutritional intake is so low, that even if you are a mushroom expert it is not worth risking.

If you can build a bow you could use scorpion venom, snakes and frogs to make poisoned arrows.

Plants that contain milky juice are often poisonous.

If you are near a big river you can fish at night using a torch light.

To build a torch, take a solid stick and wrap a palm bark around it with some camphor resin so that it continues to burn.

The fish at night are more docile, they are also attracted by light sources, holding the torch near the surface of the water the fish will approach, take advantage of the moment to hit them with a hardwood, once stunned grab them quickly.

The termites can be eaten, even if they are very small they give a great protein intake, even if they are even more than beef and fish, you have to eat a lot of them to get a decent meal.

THE NIGHT AND THE REFUGE:

The worst moment when you get lost in the jungle is the arrival of the night.

The night in the forest suddenly arrives, that’s why you have to organize a bivouac before it gets dark.

In the equator the hours of darkness and the hours of light are the same.

To build a shelter always choose an elevated area.

It is of primary importance, when possible, to light a fire, better if smoky so as not to become the meal of mosquitoes and other insects.
Mosquito bites, besides being very annoying, can transmit diseases like malaria and dengue fever.

 

Sometimes lighting a fire in the rainforest can be very difficult due to the continuous rains and the difficulty in finding dry wood.
When you light a fire you can build a small roof over it, using the large palm leaves, so that the rain does not turn off immediately.

If you do not have a lighter, a matchstick, a flint or a flintlock, you can use an eyeglass lens or the dial of the watch or a bottle bottom or a piece of glass, or anything that can concentrate the sun’s rays on the bait, provided that the area you are in is not covered by the forest roof.

Or you can light the fire using the famous bow.

For the shelter to avoid the dry river bed, pay attention to the nests of ants and the caves for the possible presence of wild animals.

Do not build the shelter directly on the path but slightly moved, as the night could be beaten by predators.

The first thing to do to organize the bivouac on the ground is to clean the surrounding soil from brushwood, branches and leaves so that it is as uniform as possible, to do so do not use your hands but a stick.

The ideal thing is to make a hammock with lianas and then hook it to two trees.

To shelter from heavy rains you can build a roof over the bed where you will rest, using large palm or banana leaves.

Wherever possible, a raised shelter can be constructed by exploiting the bifurcation of a tree by constructing a platform with reeds and branches.

If you find a termite nest you can burn dry feces over a fire, the smoke produced will be an excellent mosquito repellent.

NAVIGATE A RIVER:

If you find a river wide enough you can build a raft to move faster through the forest.

The wood to build a raft in a forest never fails, you can use barks and lianas to tie the various logs.

If you see mangroves around you while you are sailing in the river, it means that you are leaving the jungle and you are approaching the sea. If the current becomes very strong, immediately leave the raft and continue on foot to the coast, if you let yourself be transported you could be dragged into the open sea.

How to survive in the desert

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Rules and concepts for survival in a hot desert

 

The temperatures in the desert can reach values that travel from 55 to 60 degrees in the shade, while at the ground level the sand can even reach up to 80 degrees. The heat coming from below, which is perceived when walking in the desert is indescribable.
On a normal day in the desert temperatures are suffocating (around an average of 45 to 50 degrees), with these temperatures death occurs mainly by heat stroke and dehydration.

Both phenomena occur very quickly, that’s why if you find yourself having to survive in the desert the ideal solution is to move as little as possible and not to make efforts, you need to find a place in the shade where to shelter from the scorching sun and wait for help .

Example of refuge in the desert with air gap:

If you are on board a disaster vehicle it is advisable to wait inside the cabin, so that there are more chances to be glimpsed and survive.
But if you are not sure that the rescuers arrive, it is advisable to start the march only walking in the early morning (from 4 to 10) and late afternoon and evening (from 17 to 22), when the temperatures are less hot.

Hardly in the desert you can find waterways, but if you see a dry river following it you could reach a real river, and finally the civilization.

If you are in a rocky desert you can use the shadow projected by a rock formation.

For example you can find some shade and relief in the bottom of a canyon and if you have a little ‘luck even water, in fact at the foot of a canyon sometimes you can spot some stream that brings water to some small river.

VERY IMPORTANT:

Always cover the head and the nape to keep the brain shiny and avoid insolations.

If you do not own a hat, use any cloth or piece of cloth (even torn from your clothes), preferably light or white (dark colors, especially black, capture the sun’s rays and heat up earlier).

To avoid burns it is necessary to cover the whole body without leaving areas of skin exposed to sunlight.
If the heat on your head becomes unbearable you can urinate on the headgear.

It is useful to stop often to remove the sand of your shoes, especially if it is hot or if there are small stones, so as not to ruin your only means of movement: your feet!

ORIENTATION

The lack of any reference point such as trees, buildings, light poles, etc. .. makes any measure of distance illusory. In fact, as when you are at sea, you must multiply distances at least 3 times.

In a sandy dune desert, the dunes constantly change due to the wind, so you should never take them as a totally reliable reference point.

When you find green areas in the desert you can certainly find water and food, and many times even human settlements.

There are some Cactuses in America that can be relied upon for orientation.

The so-called “compass cactus” always tend to grow oriented / bent towards the south-west.

USEFUL INFORMATION

  • The internal temperature of the human body is about 37 degrees, when it reaches 40.5 degrees you go to the so-called heat stroke, the brain goes into confusion and the body is shaken by convulsions, in these conditions you can risk the coma .
    If when urinating is very dark, it means that the body is dehydrating.
  • When you find areas of shade to protect yourself from the sun it is always advisable to check that there are no snakes or other poisonous animals (even during the hottest hours they seek shade relief).
  • To check if there are any animals just throw some pebbles in the affected area and see if there are any movements. For example, snakes hate strong vibrations and it is not enough to put them on the run.
  • Dawn is the ideal time to move around in the desert (the cold of the night will also have cooled the ground).
  • When you wake up it is always advisable to check footwear, clothing and equipment as the scorpions adore to hide in shady and cool places.
  • If a SCORPIO walks on you, there is only one way to grab it, and it is of the tail keeping the sting under control, but you must be very fast; the end of the tail of the scorpion is composed of very small hairs that detect even the slightest movement in the surrounding air. However the sting is his only weapon, once neutralized the arthropod becomes harmless. 

THE NIGHT IN THE DESERT

The nights in the desert are very cold because of the very strong temperature range, which distinguishes these areas.

Nighttime temperatures can even reach close to zero, so it is necessary to try to light a fire, to be able to heat and keep away any predators, before it gets dark.

The temperature difference between day and night can even be 40 degrees.

At night it is necessary to wear other clothes and cover as much as possible.

If the internal temperature lowers below 35 degrees, hypothermia risks.

FIRE
In any survival situation, lighting a fire has always been a huge psychological help.

To light a fire you can use weeds, twigs and dry plants.

If you do not have a lighter, a matchstick, a flint or a flintlock, you can use an eyeglass lens or the dial of the watch or a bottle bottom or a piece of glass, or anything that can concentrate the sun’s rays sull’esca. If you find wood and you have a piece of string you can improvise a bow. (See how to light a fire)

THE WATER

At temperatures around 40 and 50 degrees, the human body loses about 1 liter of water per hour through the perspiration even without great effort.

Plants need water to survive, which is why even the slightest signs of vegetation can make you understand that water could be near.

If you notice a tamericio (tamerix) plant in an Asian desert, you might find it useful to know that this plant needs a lot of water to survive, so nearby you could find an aquifer or water. The same applies to the cypress.

Be careful if you find large pools of water at the base of canyons and rock formations, they could be contaminated, as they are stagnant (perhaps they have accumulated during the last rains and stagnated there for months). You can check with a stick and see if there are any dead animals in the pool of water, if you find it will be confirmed the theory that the water is decomposed and is not drinkable.

Drinking contaminated water could cause you dysentery, if not worse, and a gastrointestinal problem like that in the desert would kill you safe, as it would lead to immediate dehydration.

Remember that bees and mosquitoes always live near water sources, if you encounter some, follow their direction.

When you are dehydrated you have to drink slowly and in small sips because you ingest too much water and very quickly it may cause vomiting, dehydrating you further.

If you fortunately find a stream or a lake, pay close attention to the quicksand; before diving then check with a stick.

When you fall into the quicksand the more you move and you shake the more you sink, if you try to pull out the legs pushing upwards the effect you will get will be pulled more and more towards the bottom.

The only way to get out of it is to stop struggling and try to lift the body slowly upwards, then you have to try to reach the surface by changing the inclination of the body, pull up the arms and then the legs trying to reach the position horizontal and finally drag slowly crawling parallel to the surface to the shore.

FOOD

The food in the desert is very scarce, from time to time you can see animals such as rabbits, lizards, rats, prairie dogs, snakes and it is easier to find them near sources of water, even small or hidden in the rare bushes.

Some plants are edible and you can consume fruits, seeds, flowers, shoots and bark.

In a rocky desert, in the cracks of the highest rocks you can find nests of birds and then eggs.

Finding shells of eggs, defecations of birds and feathers indicate the presence and also the position of a nest.

If you find a controlled egg is not pierced and then eat it, you can also ingest the egg shell that is very rich in calcium. It is however advisable to cook it and never eat it raw as you could take salmonella.

Cook an egg in the desert is very simple, the temperature of the soil can reach even 80 degrees, if you find a rock or a large stone, it will certainly be hot, then hatch the egg over it will cook in a moment.

Twilight is the perfect time to go hunting. Snakes are nocturnal predators and at sunset they leave their fresh shelters to look for some prey.

To capture a snake you can hit it on the head with stones to stun it, when it appears disoriented you approach lightning and with a stick you hold it just below the head, then with a large stone the skull shattered.

How to Survive in the City After a Disaster

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Events that can lead to a sudden survival situation

  • Natural disasters: hurricanes, tornadoes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves, floods, landslides, avalanches, snowstorms, heavy storms, floods, mudslides, climatic changes, glaciation, desertification, fires, astronomical impact, solar storm.
  • Incidents: fires, environmental disasters, chemical spills, release of radioactive agents or nuclear materials, water or atmospheric pollution with toxic substances.
  • Conflicts: civil war, riots, violent demonstrations, regional war, world war, nuclear, chemical, biological or radiological wars carried out with weapons of mass destruction, terrorism.
  • General collapse of society caused by the sudden absence or scarcity of primary resources such as water, food, electricity, fuel, methane.
  • Financial, political, social or economic crisis.
  • Famines, pandemics and epidemics.
  • Bio-chemical scenario: emergency due to the sudden spread of deadly diseases, biological agents and nerve gases. Examples: swine flu, escherichia coli, botulism, dengue fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or CJD, mad cow disease, SARS, rabies, Hantavirus, anthrax, pest, cholera, HIV, ebola, Marburg virus, Lassa fever, Sarin or GB and VX.

Personal requirements that can help us deal with an emergency situation

  • Rapid decision-making capacity
  • Being able to improvise
  • Have a total control of the body and the mind
  • Being able to understand and evaluate people
  • Anticipate the danger and be able to calculate the risks
  • Self-sufficiency and independence
  • Acknowledge your limits
  • Be tenacious never to break down

The priorities in case an emergency situation is triggered are

safeguard our safety and our safety
fulfill primary needs (water – food – shelter).
Everything else loses importance: home, money, car, objects accumulated in the course of life.

SURVIVAL TECHNIQUES

Stay in your home or escape?
We may be in a position to have to choose whether to stay at home and barricade ourselves or flee. One fact to keep in mind before taking any decision is the duration of the disaster:

Short Catastrophe: ex. a whirlwind.
Long-term catastrophe: ex. famine, third world war.
Catastrophe with indefinite time: es. climate change, environmental changes.
Depending on the duration of the disaster we will have to organize ourselves in different ways.
If the cycle is long lasting we should take into account that the food stocks that we have aside will be exhausted, an escape to the suburbs and the countryside would be inevitable in order to exploit nature to survive.

A city devoid of goods and services becomes a useless pile of iron and cement hostile to survival. We should abandon the urban environment to find open spaces and seek land to grow fruit and vegetables, and to raise animals. From time to time, however, we could return to the city to look for tools, artifacts and rummage in the garbage to find tools that could come in handy.

In case of environmental disasters due to pollution of chemical products or explosions of bombs or nuclear power plants, immediately stop the consumption of meat, fish, milk, vegetables and fresh fruit from the areas concerned. Just feed on local food and products for yourself. If you are in the disaster area, leave the area immediately by car (neatly without creating chaos and without panicking). Listen to the radio and use the means of communication to stay up-to-date on the state of the disaster and strictly follow the instructions of the civil protection, law enforcement, military, or rescue teams.

If, however, a nuclear explosion has occurred, do not run away, but find shelter and barricade to avoid radioactive fallout (fall-out). Improvised crash shelters can be underground subterranean pipelines, highway and railway tunnels of a certain length, caves, mines, sewers, cellars, taverns, underground shelters or underground car parks, opting for anywhere below one meter and seventy from the level of surface.

In the event of a NUCLEAR INCIDENT OR WAR, follow this specific guide: How to survive a Nuclear Attack.

In case of biological weapons release avoid contaminated areas, crowded areas, or meeting people. Pay attention to the foods you eat (cook them well), purify the water (boil it), wear special gas masks (GP-5). The ways by which we could be infected are:

  • Air (inhalation via air diffusion)
  • Water (contamination of the water system)
  • Food (food contamination)
  • Contagion between people or animals (via viruses)

Depending on the bacterium, released virus or toxin could be very difficult to escape from the infection even by wearing protections, boiling water, etc … The only way is to escape from the area at risk.

 

Before escaping from the city (if time permits, otherwise we flee as soon as possible without wasting time saving material goods) we try to do the following things:

  • We put in an envelope: cash (all that we can, we avoid the little coins of little value), identity documents, deeds of property, precious goods (gold, diamonds), other important documents (eg vaccination booklet, health card, account current, passport, sheet with phone number of family members and blood group), keys of our properties, and other small assets that we consider valuable (eg family photo).
  • If we have a survival manual, let’s take it (if we also have a first aid manual on plants.
  • Avoid wasting time trying to withdraw cash at ATMs, at the bank or at the post office (most likely in an emergency situation, many people would gather to save their savings and obviously the banks would not have the necessary cash to pay everyone).
  • We bring with us means of communication such as radio, walkie talkie or radio transmitter, CB, notebook, telephone, any batteries and chargers (better if manual if we do not find electricity).
  • We stock up on sugar, salt, flour, oil and other long-life foods (canned, salted, marinated, syrup, in oil, honey).
  • We consume the short-term foods sooner or later.
  • We bring with us some seeds bought previously (make a selection of seeds in order to have a harvest for all seasons). Radicchi, celery, chicory, potatoes grow all year round, especially for these (see table below).
  • We take a knife, a saucepan, a capable container, a metal cup, a can opener, a bottle opener, and a few meters of rope.
  • We bring with us all the equipment that could be useful to light a fire (lighters, matches, lighters …).
  • Complete medical kit and any life-saving medicines (see final part of first aid).
    Notepads and pencil (we could keep a diary annotating useful information).
  • Clothing: a pair of comfortable trousers, jeans (excellent because very resistant), sweaters (both long-sleeved and short-sleeved, preferably cotton), sweaters, jackets, raincoat, ponchos, underpants, socks, scarves, gloves ( even a pair of work if we have them), headgear, light and heavy shoes and even a pair of rubber boots. Bring the best garments in cotton and easily washable. Do not wear too many clothes, but at least two, maximum three for each type of garment so as to alternate and have the spare when you wash the dirty ones.

In the video: emergency kit for 3 days (bug-out bag)

 

Other objects that could serve:

  • Torches (low consumption or dynamo), candles, lamps (kerosene), paraffin oil for lighting,
  • Some cutlery, a plate and a cup (better if made of steel)
  • Waterproof tarpaulins (we could take one of those used to cover cars in winter),
  • Bags, plastic bags (better if a roll of black bags, those used for garbage),
  • Blankets,
  • Sleeping bag,
  • Aluminum paper,
  • Solid soap, hand and face cleanser, towels,
  • Toothbrush, nail clippers,
  • Razor blade,
  • Portable gas or better multi-fuel cooker
  • Agricultural tools,
  • A toolbox,
  • Swiss Army knife,
  • Map of the place,
  • Insulating tape (US model),
  • Sewing set,
  • Safety pins or some staples,
  • Bicycle,
  • Firearms (if we have them, it is important not to keep them in plain sight if there are conflicts in progress could be misinterpreted),
  • Handkerchiefs and toilet paper,
  • If we also have them: water purifier, Geiger counter and potassium iodide in tablets (in case of nuclear disaster),
  • Wristwatch,
  • Additional machine battery in case we have defects or breaks, (via the cigarette lighter of the machine (12v) we could charge the phone, batteries, GPS, turn on the fire, use other electrical objects, illuminate, warm up or listen to the radio, we could use our car as a temporary shelter).
  • More … See complete survival kit.

Save fuel

Use your vehicle to make vital journeys necessary, avoid consuming petrol or diesel fuel unnecessarily (you may no longer have the opportunity to refuel).

Put all the items listed in a suitcase (even the one you use for the holidays, if the wheels are even better) or try to pack everything in one or two bags. The things you will have to use often or immediately put them in a backpack, as well as the envelope with the money and documents. Load the suitcase and the backpack into the bonnet and leave the city. Avoid bringing unnecessary items to survival or too heavy (such as televisions, PCs, …) or expensive (paintings, clothes …) even if there is space in the car not overloaded the car, you would consume a lot more fuel. Before leaving, tighten your home (doors, windows, shutters), close water, gas and switch off the power supply.

 

 

Which destination to choose?

It is better to get as far as possible from big cities, industrial centers, military bases, prefer small villages, isolated areas, mountain towns, sea or countryside, small islands or even better to create a refuge in the woods. If it is possible to move in small communities to increase the chances of survival (the knowledge, experience and physical strength of more people would benefit everyone). Help each other, cooperate and share tasks.

Once you arrive at your destination, we put the car in a safe place and use a BICYCLE for travel, we do not consume the fuel supply.

7 tips for not suffering the heat

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We are in the middle of summer, and like every year the various media launching shock titles like “the hottest summer of the last 100 years!” Media aside, the question we are going to answer in this article is: extreme heat, what to do? Here are some tips for not suffering the heat, therefore, like “preventing the heat” and what to do during the “post.

What can we do before, to suffer less heat and not risk taking a sunstroke or collapsing?

 

# 1 Avoiding demanding physical activities during the hottest hours (11.30am – 4.30pm)
This advice, even if chopped and withdrawn, remains a MUST, especially for children, the elderly or people with diseases;

# 2 Keep hydrated
hydration is essential, the daily requirement is 2 liters of water. However, keep in mind that sweating fluids must be replenished every hour better with mineral salts (magnesium, potassium and electrolytes). Therefore, take half a liter of water before leaving home, even if you are not thirsty. Alternatively, eat a lot of fruit so you will take the minerals you need and at the same time keep your body hydrated;

# 3 Wear light clothes
the tight-fitting clothes or synthetic, especially if dark, will make you live a real hell! Try to prefer a cotton or linen dress, quite large and light (the top would be white). Needless to say it but … try to avoid jeans, long pants and long sleeve dresses, at least for your own good;

# 4 Comfortable and breathable shoes
although it may seem a minor choice, you must remember that at extreme temperatures the blood is pushed towards the extremities to dissipate the heat and cool the blood (the exact opposite for the cold as pushed towards the center to prevent it from cooling too much) , so closed or high shoes will slow down this function;

# 5 Wear hat and glasses
during the summer the sun is much brighter and UV rays can create serious damage to the eyes, which are accentuated by reflecting or white surfaces. Moreover, what they know in a few, even the eyes have their temperature and pressure. The glasses will help keep them under the right conditions.
As far as the hat is concerned, avoid basketball shoes or those terrifying pseudo-basket flat-brimmed hats. You prefer a “boonie hat” in cotton with a circular brim (like a fisherman’s hat), so it will protect you from the sun, ears and neck.

# 6 Use sunscreen
It seems stupid, but even in the city you get hot, even in the car! Choose the protection that best suits your skin type and if you are not on holiday maybe avoid the coconut …

# 7 Water bottle always with you
it’s a bit connected to point # 2. Bring a flask with you, will allow you to stay hydrated. There are foldable bottles with very little space, or a backpack camelbak. You never know how long you will be outside and if you have water available, so always take it with you and preferably also with sachets of mineral salts.

How to suffer less heat when we are out?

– Avoid walking in the sun or making direct light efforts only;
– Avoid stopping or stopping in the sun and under direct light;
– Conditioners are not always good: sometimes you risk congestion. If you need to enter a mall or shop with air conditioning at 1000, stop just a few seconds between the door and the inside of the store to better withstand the overhang. The same rule applies for leaving the shop;
– Fans are preferable to the air conditioner: however, they “dry” the sweat that our body needs to cool down, which will make you sweat more. In this case use a handkerchief or wet ascigamane to help this function by dabbing the forehead and especially behind the ear lobes.
– If you have to do something, do it VERY SLOWLY, the slower movements will cause you to sweat less and get tired less.
– Watch out for pressure, some people with heat are suffering from low pressure and others still high. In case of low pressure, minerals are needed. To get it up, take liquorice or salt! For God, avoid alcohol!
In the case of high blood pressure, however, the one that works best is grapefruit juice (better if fresh);
– Do not drink alcohol and especially NEVER frozen drinks. This will make you sweat even more and you will only risk congestion, as opposed to what you may think hot drinks like tea will make you feel less hot, hot mint tea, try it!
– In case of intense heat and extreme, if you have any way, moisten your clothes but not the hair or the body: wetting the body “laverete” away the sweat that is much more effective than water in cooling the body.
– In the car do not put the air conditioning shot at 1000, but try to maintain a temperature between 22/24 degrees, otherwise once you get off the car the “blow” of heat felt will be very strong and in some cases you could risk the collapse;
– Last recommendation, to avoid the return to the car to finish roasting is to cover the windshield and the windows with sheets or newspaper to keep the cabin cooler.
– Avoid walking in the sun or making direct light efforts only;
– Avoid stopping or stopping in the sun and under direct light;
– Conditioners are not always good: sometimes you risk congestion. If you need to enter a mall or shop with air conditioning at 1000, stop just a few seconds between the door and the inside of the store to better withstand the overhang. The same rule applies for leaving the shop;
– Fans are preferable to the air conditioner: however, they “dry” the sweat that our body needs to cool down, which will make you sweat more. In this case use a handkerchief or wet ascigamane to help this function by dabbing the forehead and especially behind the ear lobes.
– If you have to do something, do it VERY SLOWLY, the slower movements will cause you to sweat less and get tired less.
– Watch out for pressure, some people with heat are suffering from low pressure and others still high. In case of low pressure, minerals are needed. To get it up, take liquorice or salt! For God, avoid alcohol!
In the case of high blood pressure, however, the one that works best is grapefruit juice (better if fresh);
– Do not drink alcohol and especially NEVER frozen drinks. This will make you sweat even more and you will only risk congestion, as opposed to what you may think hot drinks like tea will make you feel less hot, hot mint tea, try it!
– In case of intense heat and extreme, if you have any way, moisten your clothes but not the hair or the body: wetting the body “laverete” away the sweat that is much more effective than water in cooling the body.
– In the car do not put the air conditioning shot at 1000, but try to maintain a temperature between 22/24 degrees, otherwise once you get off the car the “blow” of heat felt will be very strong and in some cases you could risk the collapse;
– Last recommendation, to avoid the return to the car to finish roasting is to cover the windshield and the windows with sheets or newspaper to keep the cabin cooler.

Food for survival

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When one thinks of survival food the thought always goes to the freeze-dried or to other disgusting “pastrugni” and in fact it is quite realistic as a supposition. However, many times we find ourselves bewildered or confused to which foods to choose to be included in Bug Out Bags or EDCs. So what are the alternatives for survival food and the so-called “long life food storage” (ie our stocks)?

The types
To try to make things easier, we divide into 3 classes of needs and requirements:

  • Food for E.D.C. (Every Day Carry)
  • Food for B.O.B. (Bug out bag / 72h backpack)
  • Food for L.L.F.S. (Long life food storage)

It is assumed that for an EDC kit, which is therefore very light and transportable on a daily basis, it is sufficient to face a drop in sugar or a reintegration of mineral salts and proteins. Therefore, you do not need a complete meal as you might need in a Bug Out Bag. In this case, more than a meal you can talk about a snack to calm the symptoms mentioned above.

In addition to this, the c.d. “Ration Pack” must be ultra-light and compact, have a good supply of sugar, proteins and must not require neither water nor cooking to require excessive consumption of water for the consumption of the meal: if you are eating a dry, chewy or too concentrated food, it will be spontaneous to drink and we will not always have water available.

Solution for the EDC Ration Pack

  • 2 energy bars with cereals, chocolate, dried fruit like the Enervit sport power time;
  • 2 Sachets of sugar;
  • 1 sachet of potassium / magnesium;
  • 1 bag of salt;

Optional: if there is a long-life packet available. It can be easily replaced with a small bottle of water, but surely the sachet is a bit ‘more “TactiCool”!

 

Food for BOB

Here, the calculation is a bit more complex. A very timely approach to estimating when “survival food” is needed is to calculate the caloric intake and consumption of personal energy by parameterizing the right equivalent in food. However, to avoid losing our mind in calculations and simulations, we take a more pragmatic approach. Let’s see specifically which foods and, above all, in which quantities, are necessary for the famous 72 hours. Needless to think about bringing two weeks’ stock into a Bug Out Bag. That said, if you have not yet done Buggin Out in 72 hours or your strategy is Buggin In or you have failed the evacuation plan, then you will have to improvise!

Solution for the BOB Ration Pack

Water: the usual 2 liters per day per person. However, I would like to point out that for 72 hours (3 days) are 6 liters per person and equivalent to 6kg container excluded. If you feel dared you can lower your supply to 4 liters and insert tablets and filters to make water, but you must be sure you can get the water.
Food: 3/4 packs of MRE or freeze-dried foods. 3 days for 3 meals a day are equivalent to 9 meals per person, as you are not a camel I doubt you can weigh the weight of crockery, dishes and voluminous wrappers. The optimal solution would be the MRE but they are a bit ‘difficult to find (not to mention the cost). Therefore freeze-dried foods could be the cheapest solution. However you will need extra water (about 1.5lt more), cooker, pot and cooking fuel, which translated is more weight.

Alternatives

Solution # 1: 3 MRE, 5 liters of water, 4 protein bars and 4 Beef Jerky;
Solution # 2: 3 lyophilized bags, 5 liters of water + 1 for cooking, 2 boxes of nrg5, 1 bag of cereals, 2 energy bars, dextrose tablets and condensed milk;
Solution # 3: 6 lyophilized bags, 6 liters of water + 1, 4 chocolate bars, dextrose tablets and condensed milk, peanut butter, 3 energy bars.
For the freeze-dried products there are two alternatives: opt for technical foods (such as those of the Mountain House) or choose risottos and other soups such as those of Knorr to be clear, available at normal supermarkets or purchased online. Solutions 2 and 3 require at least one container for cooking. A good alternative to the classic apprenticeship is the JetBoil, an excellent compact and very fast cooking system, but which unfortunately requires gas to operate.

Food for L.L.F.S.

Finally, we arrive at the last scenario hypothesized at the beginning of this article regarding survival food. With this acronym (LLFS) we mean “long-term food” and its storage. In this case it is not about rations to “take along” but it is presumed to find these foods in their Bug Out Location.

Here there is no measure to determine the exact quantities. The only possible limit is established by you, and it is how many provisions you succeed, or have succeeded, in storing and storing.
The ideal would be to choose foods that can be easily stored with very long shelf life (cereals), cereals, flour and canned food, as well as the inevitable water that must be treated. Attention to the canned food, for the botulino question that we will elaborate in a second moment.

To preserve these foods, special containers and aluminum bags are needed to prevent oxygen and light from triggering the oxidation and decomposition processes. Also useful for our purpose are moisture and oxygen absorbers (here you can make a culture: oxygen absorbers).

Remember to also store seeds to grow your own food. Sooner or later your stocks will end and you will have to repack them as time passes. In detail, to store the seeds for a long time a temperature of around 5 ° C is needed (the refrigerator one to be clear), while for an “annual” storage it is sufficient to store them in a cool, dry room, for example, a cellar. Also in this case the rules of long-life foods are valid, therefore envelopes that isolate light and do not pass oxygen.

Long Life Food Storage Solution

Store your food with suitable containers and suitable additives;
Store canned goods and often check the expiration dates by turning in FIFO * (First In – First Out) all products avoiding to make them expire (everyone hates the wasteful!).
Properly stock the vegetable seeds, and useful plants such as medicinal plants.
Store enough water, write down the bottling date and renew your inventory every year.
* FIFO – The first product that is stored is also the first product to be consumed.

Fishing – surviving by feeding on fish

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HOW TO FIND FOOD AT SEA AND IN SWEET WATER

Fish, especially in areas of the sea and in the presence of rivers and lakes, are an important source of food not to be overlooked.

Fish is an excellent food, contains many proteins, is rich in vitamins and minerals, and has few fats. The fish also contains Omega-3.

They can be captured in different ways:

  • With bare hands: you can use this simple and primitive technique in a river. The technique consists of taking the fish from the bottom with two hands and throwing it towards the shore, once on the mainland it is necessary to immobilize it before it wriggles, the fish, is able to return to the water. Move and slowly and hold hands in the water doing very few movements, avoid projecting your shadow on the fish. You can also create a barrier and lead the fish towards it, in order to make the capture easier.

In the video a man catches trout with his hands.

  • With lances and harpoons: this technique is advisable in shallow waters and if there are many fish. The technique consists in keeping the lance on the surface of the water and when it passes a fish pierce it with a lightning movement (sometimes it takes hours to succeed if you are a beginner, do not lose heart!).

An excellent harpoon can be constructed by modeling the ends with teeth (see photo) in order to prevent the fish from escaping once captured.

 

  • With traps or with a net with these techniques we could catch fish in quantity without too much effort. If you have a net (if you have time you can also weave one) just place it in the water following the current of the river. We can also make traps to block inside the fish that end up inside (eg with cages, or with stones or large woods to divert the fish to areas of capture).
  • With hook and thread: the hook can be improvised with wire, bones, nails, safety pins, needles, clips, pins, buckle of the boot, etc … For the line are good laces, ropes, wire (that of nylon it would be ideal) even made with plant materials. This method is the most recommended for fishing at sea.

BAIT

For the bait you can use: insects (winged ants and crickets), worms, small fish, larvae, entrails and shreds of animals (eg eyes).

The most used live baits are earthworms and carnaria caterpillars. You have to place them on the hook so that they can move freely, without killing them.

You can also use dead baits such as corn, fruit (eg grapes), bread, or some artisan pasta made from particularly strong ingredients such as cheese.

There are also artificial lures, which are not of animal origin but are made from materials and shaped with shapes that attract the fish towards them (eg fly, spoon or spinning bait). In survival you can use feathers, pieces of metal, colored fabrics, aluminum paper.

TIPS

  • The fish are attracted to the shaded areas of the waterways.
  • Night fishing can be done with the use of a torch (it can be very fruitful).
  • Prefer fishing before the ALBA and immediately after the SUNSET.
  • You can attract the fish to your lance by applying to it a bait in the form of fish carved with cedar or willow wood.
  • In fishing it takes a lot of patience, especially if it is practiced with means of luck, do not be discouraged if you can not get results, try and try again and with the experience you will become better and better.
  • The best ones can also fish with bow and arrows.
  • Never eat the internal organs of fish.
  • If the method you used to fish gave you satisfactory results, always use that.

FOODS THAT CAN BE FOUND ON THE SHORE OF THE SEA

CLAMS:Gastereopodi (among the safest as a food source, can be found among the rocks and are easy to capture),patelle, buccini, littorine and abalone.

BIVALVES (such as clams, mussels, razor clams, scallops, canestrel, mussels, fasolaro, can be found on the rocks).

COMMON OCTOPUS: it is a cephalopod mollusk, it can be captured with a harpoon. Tents to hide among the rocks in depth.

ARTHROPODS:crustaceans: prawns, prawns, crabs, lobsters, lobsters, hermit crabs.

CIRRIPEDS: barnacles and barnacles.

ECHINODERMS: sea urchins.

 

RIVERS IN ALASKA

In the Alaska rivers, pink salmon and real salmon can be caught. To capture them, you can make a double-pointed harpoon using a long, durable stick to which you have created two sharp points. To use the harpoon you have to push the salmon or fish in the shallow water to be able to put them on and then catch them with your hands. To do this, slam a stick or throw stones into the water to scare them and direct the fish to the desired place.

To fish, however, in deeper waters you will need hook, wire and bait.
FISHING IN ICE
If you find a frozen lake you can drill ice to try to fish deep.

Attach the hook on a 1 meter long rope and tie it to a stick that will fit on the hole. To prevent the entrance hole from freezing, you can place a pine branch in the hole.

ON AN ISLAND

In an island to find food you can try fishing, in this case you can build an excellent harpoon using bamboo, which is very durable and sharp. However, it is important to know the edible fish because in the tropical seas there are many poisonous and also some species also attack the man.

To fish you can use the poison contained in the roots of the Derris plants (involute and elliptica). Remember that the greener roots contain more rotenone (such venom is harmless to humans but the fish that come in contact die). When you dive to fish not too far from the coast there could be sharks, also stay away and not put your hands in the corners and in the fissures of the seabed could hide poisonous fish (moray eels) ready to attack; also watch out for jellyfish.

SOME EDIBLE FISH:

Anchovies or anchovies, sardines or sardines, eels, bogues, mackerel, sole, dairy, big head, mullet, sea bream, bass, mullet, grouper, squid, red snapper, cod, sea bream, glimpse, trout, salmon, roar, turbot, plaice, cuttlefish, octopus, squid, tuna, clams, mussels, razor, conger, hake, monkfish, platessa, biso, suro, gallinella, needlefish, swordfish, octopus, pagelli, dogfish, salpa, emery, herring, spiny , zanchette, oysters and fasolari.

SOME POISONOUS FISH:

Scorpion fish, tracery or spider fish (there are 9 species), parsnip, puffer fish, catfish, stone fish, lion and scorpion, jellyfish (among the most dangerous we remember the Sea Vespa), some species of conus.

Living off-grid

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Have you ever thought how good it would be to live without having to look at the mailbox and feel a certain apprehension, in the hope of not finding a threatening looking white letter that reminds you that it is time to pay?

Living OFF THE GRID

This term literally means off the grid, or “disconnected”.
The total self-sufficiency of an off-grid house allows total independence from any type of supply deriving from services provided by public or private bodies (water, gas, electricity, garbage, …)
Obviously, beautiful things are never easy to get: first of all we talk about costs.
Leaving aside the amortization of the investment, whose time horizon is very long, a completely independent and self-sufficient house is not a goal for all budgets.
There are those who start a little at a time, in part, through the purchase of solar panels and photovoltaics, or by exploiting other renewable energy. A second step can be the realization of an artesian well, with the hope, finally, of detaching completely from the system, from the famous “grid”.

 

Why live off the grid?

Imagine that one of the many SHTF or TEOTWAWKI scenarios is presented to us “dear”: we would be completely immune from any kind of immediate consequence. We would continue to be able to use electricity, have clean water and be able to warm up. We point out, this eventuality would be excluded in the event we are directly hit by a natural event (eg earthquake or flood) or when the voice of our self-sufficiency spreads. In this case, it is easy to understand that an optimal defense system would be advisable, even better if instead of a house it is a complex of houses, according to the theory of “unity is strength”.

Returning to the basic question, why live off the grid, I believe that the need to get away and above all, to detox from the modern consumerist / capitalist system, trying to play a healthier life and in harmony with nature is one of the reasons that pushes towards this Street; paved road of difficulty and compromise.
Switching from a hi-tech life, with a mobile phone, television, internet to one where books are sometimes the only source of entertainment is not easy. In my opinion, probably, we would be more focused on living fully real life rather than trying to get a perfect, but virtual ..

That said, I conclude this first article, asking you how many of you already have (or are starting) a home off the grid. Also, what problems did you face and how did you solve them? Write it down below in the comments!